Greater prevalence of comorbidities with increasing age: Cross-sectional analysis of chronic hepatitis B patients in Saudi Arabia
Faisal M Sanai1, Hamdan Alghamdi2, Khalid A Alswat3, Mohammed A Babatin4, Mona H Ismail5, Waleed K Alhamoudi3, Abduljaleel M Alalwan2, Yaser Dahlan6, Abdullah S Alghamdi4, Faleh Z Alfaleh3, Abdulrahman A Aljumah2, Ibrahim H Altraif2, Khalid Albeladi6, Faisal Batwa6, Waleed Alshumrani6, Drifa Belhadi7, Victor Genestier7, Ayman A Abdo3
1 Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Hepatology Division, Department of Hepatobiliary Sciences and Organ Transplant Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4 Liver Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
7 Amaris, Health Economics and Market Access (HEMA) Department, Levallois-Perret, France
Dr. Faisal M Sanai
Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Abdulaziz Medical City, PO Box 9515 (IMB 1440), Jeddah - 21423
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background/Aims: Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia to some extent, are endemic for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection which could be associated with high mortality and comorbidities risk. However, limited data characterizing this CHB population exists. Our aim was to characterize and compare CHB patients in 2015 with those in 2010 and 2012 in Saudi Arabia.
Patients and Methods: We conducted and compared three cross-sectional analyses of adult patients with CHB defined as either positive hepatitis B surface antigen or documented CHB history in 2010, 2012, and 2015. Data were accessed from the multicenter Systematic Observatory Liver Disease Registry (SOLID).
Results: A total of 765 CHB patients were identified in 2010 (n = 274), 2012 (n = 256), and 2015 (n = 235). Median age was significantly higher in 2015 (47 years) compared to 2010 and 2012 (42 years;P < 0.05). The proportions of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (range 1–12%) and cirrhosis (range 5–23%) were significantly higher in 2015 compared to 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.05). Compared to 2010, patients in 2015 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (10% vs. 4%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18% vs. 9%). Although not significant, there was a numerical increase in 2015 in chronic kidney disease (9% vs. 7% in 2010;P= 0.559) and hepatic steatosis (32% vs. 25% in 2010;P= 0.074). Significantly more patients in 2015 (P < 0.05) were treatment experienced (23% vs. 5% in 2010/2012) and switched treatment (17% vs. 1–2% in 2010/2012).
Conclusions: Between 2010 and 2015, the CHB population in Saudi Arabia had significantly aged and was more likely to develop liver disease sequelae and other comorbidities.