Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-August 2019
Volume 25 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 207-268

Online since Friday, August 23, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Now trending in Riyadh: Increased urbanization equals to more obesity in children and adolescents p. 207
Assim A Alfadda, Afshan Masood
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_347_19  PMID:31424001
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic duct drainage p. 210
Yousuke Nakai, Hirofumi Kogure, Hiroyuki Isayama, Kazuhiko Koike
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_474_18  PMID:30632484
Endoscopic transpapillary or transanastomotic pancreatic duct drainage (PD) is the mainstay of drainage in symptomatic pancreatic duct obstruction or leakage. However, transpapillary or transanastomotic PD can be technically difficult due to the tight stricture or surgically altered anatomy (SAA), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided PD (EUS-PD) is now increasingly used as an alternative technique. There are two approaches in EUS-PD: EUS-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) and EUS-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD). In cases with normal anatomy, EUS-RV should be the first approach, whereas EUS-TMD can be selected in cases with SAA or duodenal obstruction. In our literature review, technical success and adverse event rates were 78.7% and 21.8%, respectively. The technical success rate of EUS-RV appeared lower than EUS-TMD due to the difficulty in guidewire passage. In future, development of dedicated devices and standardization of EUS-PD procedure are necessary.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW/META-ANALYSIS Top

The effect of using simethicone with or without N-acetylcysteine before gastroscopy: A meta-analysis and systemic review p. 218
Yuanfa Li, Fangjuan Du, Dou Fu
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_538_18  PMID:31044749
Background/Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of simethicone with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as premedications before gastroscopy. Materials and Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane library and Web of Science database for randomized clinical controlled trials regarding simethicone ± NAC as oral drinking agents before gastroscopy. Statistical software RevMan5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ten randomized clinical trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were further pooled into a meta-analysis, which included 5,750 patients. The rate of positive findings in simethicone plus NAC group was higher than that in water group (risk ratio [RR] =1.31, 95%CI: 1.12–1.53, P = 0.0006) with high level of evidence. There was no significant difference on the rate of positive findings when comparing simethicone with simethicone plus NAC (RR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.90–1.16, P = 0.71) and with water (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.82–1.55, P = 0.46), respectively. Simethicone plus NAC showed better total mucosal visibility score than simethicone alone (MD = −0.14 (−0.25, −0.03), P = 0.01) without obvious heterogeneity. Both simethicone plus NAC and simethicone alone offer more benefit than water. The procedure time in simethicone group was shorter than that in water group (MD = −1.23 (−1.51, −0.96), P < 0.00001). Regarding adverse events, there was no significant difference in simethicone and water group (RR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.2–1.0, P = 0.05, I2 = 0%). Conclusions: As premedication of gastroscopy, simethicone plus NAC offers more benefit on positive findings and total mucosal visibility score.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Overweight and obesity among Saudi children and adolescents: Where do we stand today? p. 229
Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini, Muhammad Salman Bashir, Musa Khormi, Muath AlTuraiki, Wahid Alkhamis, Mona Alrajhi, Thana Halal
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_617_18  PMID:31187784
Background/Aim: To provide the most recent estimate of childhood obesity and determine the trend in childhood obesity in Riyadh city over the past two decades, by comparing our results with previous studies that published data comparable to our study in terms of geography, sample age (6–16 years), and use of World Health Organization (WHO) cut-offs to define obesity. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among school children in Riyadh city. A sample of 7930 children (67% girls) aged 6–16 years were randomly selected. Body mass index for age and gender above +1 and below +2 standard deviation scores (SDS) defined overweight (SDS, z-scores) and >+2 SD scores defined obesity. Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13.4% (14.2% for girls and 12% for boys; P= 0.02) and 18.2% (18% for girls and 18.4% for boys; P = 0.73), respectively. When compared with the WHO-based national prevalence rate of obesity reported in 2004 (≈9.3%), the obesity rate has doubled over a 10-year period. There was a significantly higher prevalence of obesity in adolescents (>11 years) than in children (20.2% vs 15.7%; P < 0.01). Overweight and obesity increased significantly with higher levels of socioeconomic status. Obese children were at 1.5 and 2 times risk of developing gas bloating and vomiting than non-obese children. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen alarmingly among Saudi children and adolescents over the past decade and should make a strong case to initiate and monitor effective implementation of obesity prevention measures.
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Development and validation of a nomogram to individually predict survival of young patients with nonmetastatic gastric cancer: A retrospective cohort study Highly accessed article p. 236
Chaorui Wu, Nianchang Wang, Hong Zhou, Tongbo Wang, Dongbing Zhao
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_378_18  PMID:30719999
Background/Aims: Evidence regarding gastric cancer (GC) patients <40 years old is limited. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors affecting overall survival (OS) of young patients with nonmetastatic GC and to establish a nomogram for prognostic prediction using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Furthermore, this study sought to externally validate this nomogram in an independent patient cohort. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the records of patients aged <40 years with nonmetastatic GC (n = 559), from the SEER database, between 2006 and 2015, were examined. The nomogram was established based on the Cox proportional hazards regression model using the SEER dataset. Patients with nonmetastatic GC (n = 201) in our department between 2009 and 2015 were selected as an external validation set. Discrimination and calibration were performed in both cohorts. Results: The multivariate Cox model identified race, tumor subsites, tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, number of examined lymph nodes, and surgery as independent covariates associated with OS. The nomogram exhibited superior discriminative power than the eighth tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system in both the training set [Harrell's concordance index (C index): 0.762 vs. 0.635,P < 0.001] and validation set (C index: 0.805 vs. 0.712,P= 0.176). Calibration of the nomogram was good in both cohorts. Conclusions: We developed a nomogram predicting 3- and 5-year OS rates in young patients with nonmetastatic GC. Both the training set and validation set showed good discrimination and calibration, suggesting good clinical applicability.
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Comparison between laparoscopic and endoscopic resections for gastric submucosal tumors p. 245
Huaying Zhang, Xinyu Huang, Chao Qu, Cheng Bian, Huiguang Xue
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_412_18  PMID:30618440
Background/Aims: Open resection/laparoscopic resection (LR) is the traditional treatment of gastric submucosal tumor (G-SMT). The endoscopic resection (ER) technology provides good results for G-SMT treatment but lacks sufficient evidence-based evidence. This retrospective study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of ER [endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE), and endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR)] and LR [laparoscopic wedge resection (LWR) and laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LSG)] for G-SMT. Patients and Methods: From January 2013 to January 2017, data of patients with G-SMT with tumor diameter <5 cm were collected from the database of The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University and classified based on surgical methods. Demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical outcomes, complications and tumor recurrence were recorded and compared. Results: Overall, 275 patients with G-SMT were enrolled: 152 underwent ER (ESD, n = 65; ESE, n = 23; EFR, n = 61) and 123 underwent LR (LWR, n = 93; LSG, n = 30). Age, sex, R0 resection rate, tumor location, type, recurrence and complications were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The ER group had a significantly higher percentage of intraluminal tumor (94.1% vs 62.4%) and smaller tumor size (1.8 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 1.2 cm) than the LR group. The ER group had less muscular tumors than the LR group (54.6% vs 70.7%). The ER group had no serosal tumor. The ER group had shorter hospitalization time, postoperative hospital stay and diet recovery time. The LR group had shorter operation time, less cost and less blood loss. Conclusion: ER and LR are safe and effective treatments for SMT. For small intraluminally growing SMT, ER is better than LR.
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Rate and predictive factors of Helicobacter pylori recurrence: Analysis of a screening cohort p. 251
Ji Hyung Nam, Kum Hei Ryu, Bum Joon Park, Chan Wha Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_456_18  PMID:30950407
Background/Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the recurrence rate of Helicobacter pylori after successful eradication in an endemic area and investigate baseline and clinical factors related to the recurrence. Patients and Methods: H. pylori infected patients from a screening cohort of National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2012 were enrolled in the study. A total of 647 patients who were confirmed to be successfully eradicated were annually followed by screening endoscopy and rapid urease test. Median follow-up interval was 42 months. Annual recurrence rate of H. pylori was identified. Demographics, clinical factors, and endoscopic findings were compared between H. pylori recurrence group and persistently eradicated group (control group). Results: H. pylori recurrence was observed in 21 (3.25%) patients. Its annual recurrence rate was 0.91% (1.1% in males and 0.59% in females). Mean age was higher in the recurrence group than that in the control group (55.9 vs 50.7, P = 0.006). Median follow-up was shorter in the recurrence group than that in the control group (34 vs. 42.5 months, P = 0.031). In multivariate analysis, OR for H. pylori recurrence was 1.08 per each increase in age (P = 0.012). Adjusted ORs for H. pylori recurrence were 0.20 (95% CI: 0.06–0.69) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08–0.76) in age groups of 50–59 years and less than 50 years, respectively, compared to the group aged 60 years or older. Conclusion: H. pylori recurrence rate in Korea is very low after successful eradication. Advanced age is at increased risk for H. pylori recurrence. Thus, H. pylori treatment for patients who are under 60 years of age is more effective, leading to maintenance of successful eradication status.
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Diagnostic delay of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in Saudi Arabia p. 257
Mohammad I El Mouzan, Badr I AlSaleem, Mohammed Y Hasosah, Abdulrahman A Al-Hussaini, Aziz H Al Anazi, Omar I Saadah, Ahmed A Al Sarkhy, Mohammad A Al Mofarreh, Asaad A Assiri
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_457_18  PMID:30971589
Background/Aim: Delay in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with complications. Our aim was to describe the pattern and risk factors associated with delay in the diagnosis of IBD in Saudi children. Patients and Methods: This was a multicenter study with a retrospective/prospective design. Data on diagnostic delay in children with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were retrieved from physician's notes. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors associated with long delay in diagnosis. Results: There were 240 and 183 Saudi children with CD and UC, respectively. The median delays in diagnosis were 8 and 5 months in CD and UC, respectively, significantly longer in children with CD than UC (P < 0.001). Long diagnostic delays (>75th percentile) were 24 and 8.8 months for CD and UC, respectively. Ileal location was a significant risk factor in CD and the age of onset above 10 years was protective in UC. Conclusions: Long diagnostic delay in IBD was mainly due to the longer delay in gastroenterologist consultation. Review of the referral system is needed to focus on measures to reduce long delays in diagnosis. The ileal location as a risk factor in CD and age older than 10 years as protective in UC should help recognition and early referral.
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Preparatory information reduces gastroscopy-related stress in children as confirmed by salivary cortisol p. 262
Burcu Volkan, Nevzat Aykut Bayrak, Cihat Ucar, Duygu Kara, Sedat Yıldız
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_493_18  PMID:31044746
Background/Aims: This study aimed to determine whether the anxiety levels of pediatric patients who undergo endoscopy are reduced after receiving preparatory information about the endoscopic procedure by monitoring their salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) levels. Patients and Methods: A total of 184 children undergoing gastroscopy under sedoanalgesia were included in the study. All the patients received a brief explanation of the endoscopic procedure. Patients were divided into two groups; Group Unexplained did not receive any further information other than a brief explanation of the procedure, Group Explained received more detailed explanation of the procedure. To determine anxiety levels, saliva specimens were taken on the day before the procedure to examine cortisol levels before and after endoscopy. Anxiety scores before endoscopy were calculated by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. Patients were monitored throughout sedoanalgesia, including during the endoscopy, sedation and recovery, and total propofol dosages were recorded. Results: Eighty-nine children undergoing gastroscopy (age 11.55 ± 2.52 years; 50.5% girls) constituted Group Explained and 95 children undergoing gastroscopy (age 11.44 ± 2.66 years; 56.8% male) constituted Group Unexplained. The anxiety score, duration of sedation, endoscopy and recovery, propofol dose, pre- and post-endoscopy s-cortisol levels were significantly reduced in Group Explained. Conclusions: We demonstrated that when endoscopic procedure is explained broadly to a child, the procedural stress is significantly less, as measured by the s-cortisol levels and the anxiety questionnaire. It is important for the attending physician to explain all aspects of examination carefully.
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RESPONSE TO LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Bone mineral density loss in cirrhotics: Impact of country specific data p. 268
Ibrahim Muhsen, Abdullah AlKhenizan, Fahad Alsohaibani
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_182_19  PMID:31339110
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