Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-February 2020
Volume 26 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-62

Online since Tuesday, February 18, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Artificial inelegance in endoscopy: An updated auricle of Delphi! p. 1
Majid A Almadi, Khek Yu Ho
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_636_19  PMID:32098934
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW/META-ANALYSIS Top

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of medical treatments for the management of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome Highly accessed article p. 4
Yousef Qari, Mahmoud Mosli
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_213_19  PMID:31898642
Background/Aim: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign, poorly understood disorder that is difficult to manage. Medical interventions such as sucralfate, sulfasalzine, human fibrin, and a high fibre diet are reported as the first line of treatment. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of medical treatments for SRUS. Materials and Methods: Databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies that evaluated medical treatments for SRUS. Two authors independently performed selection of eligible studies based on eligiblity criteria. Data extraction from potentially eligible studies was carried out according to predefined data collection methods. Medical treatments, including sucralfate, sulfasalzine, human fibrin, a high fibre diet, and psyllium powder as a single or combination therapy were compared to placebo alone or combined with other treatments. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with ulcer remission; this was presented as pooled prevalence (PP) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The I2 value and Q statistic test were used to test for heterogeneity. In the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model was applied. Results: A total of 9 studies with 216 patients (males = 118, females = 98) diagnosed with SRUS were analysed in the final meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimate of treatment efficacy revealed that, of the patients receiving medical treatment, 57% had resolution of their ulcers (PP 0.57; 95% CI; 0.41 to 0.73). Statistically significant heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 63%; τ2 = 0.64, P= <0.01). The scarcity of RCTs comparing medical treatments with other interventions was a major limitation. Conclusions: The majority of patients receiving medical treatment for the management of SRUS experience resolution of their ulcers.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Study on detection rate of polyps and adenomas in artificial-intelligence-aided colonoscopy p. 13
Wen-Na Liu, Yang-Yang Zhang, Xu-Qiang Bian, Li-Juan Wang, Qiang Yang, Xi-Dou Zhang, Jin Huang
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_377_19  PMID:31898644
Background/Aim: To study the impact of computer-aided detection (CADe) system on the detection rate of polyps and adenomas in colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 1026 patients were prospectively randomly scheduled for colonoscopy with (the CADe group, CADe) or without (the control group, CON) the aid of the CADe system, together with visual notification and voice alarm, so as to compare the detection rate of polyp. Results: Compared with group CON, the detection rate of adenomas increased in group CADe, the average number of adenomas increased, the number of small adenomas increased, the number of proliferative polyps increased, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001), but the comparison for the number of larger adenomas showed no significant difference between the groups (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The CADe system is feasible for increasing the detection of polyps and adenomas in colonoscopy.
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Quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of early infection in pancreatic collections: Results of a pilot study p. 20
Binit Sureka, Balwant Rai, Vaibhav Varshney, Vijaya L Nag, Mahendra K Garg, Pawan K Garg, Taruna Yadav, Pushpinder S Khera, Akhil Goel
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_411_19  PMID:31997778
Background/Aims: The development of infection in pancreatitis increases the mortality rate up to 32%. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who are at high risk of developing infection, at an early stage. The objectives of the study were (a) to analyze the quantitative parameters of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in infected as well as sterile pancreatic collections (b) to establish “cut-off” values for ADC that can identify infected pancreatic collections. Materials and Methods: Prospective observational study of pancreatitis cases who underwent DW-MRI from August 2018 to July 2019 were enrolled in the study. The collections were analyzed for diffusion restriction. The average of the three ADC values from the wall and center of collection was noted. Results: Infected collections were seen in 7 and sterile collections observed in 11 cases. The optimal cut-off ADC value to differentiate sterile and infected collection in our study was 1.651 × 10-3 mm2/s (sensitivity of 81.8%; specificity of 100.0%). ROC curve for mean ADC from the wall showed a significant diagnostic accuracy with AUC: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.77-1.0 (P = 0.004). Conclusion: DW-MRI is a reliable noninvasive technique to differentiate sterile and infected pancreatic collections. ADC values from the periphery of the collection can predict infected pancreatic collections at an early stage. DW-MRI should not be considered as a substitute for aspiration cytology in patients with septic symptoms and absent diffusion restriction on MRI.
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Health related quality of life among Saudi children and adolescents with celiac disease p. 26
Norah D Al Nofaie, Jawaher R Al Ahmadi, Omar I Saadah
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_74_19  PMID:31898646
Background/Aims: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. This study reports on the quality of life (QOL) of Saudi children and adolescents with CD. Patients and Methods: This is a case control study that included Saudi patients with CD, aged 9-18 years, who attended CD Clinic at KAU between February 2017 and July 2018. The study was conducted using the Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire for all candidates, CD-specific QOL questionnaire for the CD patients group, and CD screen questionnaire for the control group. Results: Overall, 354 subjects were studied (111 CD patients and 243 control). Female subjects constituted 56.8% of both patient and control groups. In the generic SF-36 questionnaire, QOL was comparable between patients and controls in all domains except for the general health domain, which showed difference in favor of the controls (55.01 ± 26.41 and 62.96 ± 18.16, P = 0.005). We also found that males have lower QOL scores in the domains comprising health change (P = 0.02), physical functioning (P = 0.04, role functioning/emotional and emotional well-being (P = 0.049). The CD-specific QOL showed excellent and good scores for 79.3% of patients overall in the tested domains. Patients with poor adherence showed poor QOL in all generic (SF-36) domains but not in CD-specific domains. Conclusion: The HRQOL for Saudi CD children on GFD is generally comparable to the healthy control with exception of the general health domain. Adherence to the GFD improves the generic (SF-36) QOL domains.
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The utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and Helicobacter pylori screening in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing bariatric surgery: A cross-sectional, single-center study in Saudi Arabia p. 32
Ahmad AlEid, Areej Al Balkhi, Ali Hummedi, Anfal Alshaya, Muhammad Abukhater, Abdullah Al Mtawa, Abdullah Al Khathlan, Adel Qutub, Khalid Al Sayari, Shameem Ahmad, Tauseef Azhar, Nawaf Al Otaibi, Ahmed Al Ghamdi, Abed Al Lehibi
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_165_19  PMID:31898643
Background/Aim: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and Helicobacter pylori screening are routine parts of the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing bariatric surgery at many centers around the world. The reason for this step is to identify abnormalities that may change the surgical approach. In this study, we aim to evaluate the extent to which endoscopic findings and H. pylori testing affect the plan of care in bariatric patients. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the investigational processes of 356 patients planned for bariatric surgery (2014–2016) at our center. Patients were categorized into two main groups (4 subgroups) from endoscopic findings. One group included patients with normal EGD and patients who had abnormal findings that did not change the surgical approach, whereas the other included patients who had findings that changed or canceled the surgical plan. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate how strongly can factors such as patient demographics, BMI, comorbidities, symptomatology, and H. pylori status predict the risk of having plan-changing endoscopic abnormalities. Results: The ages ranged between 15 and 66 years with a mean ± SD of 37 ± 11 years, and 56% were females. The majority of patients (75%; 95% CI: 73 – 82%) had either no findings (41%) or had abnormalities that did not change the surgical approach (34%). Only 25% (95% CI: 21–29%) were found to have pathologies that altered the surgical approach, and 0.6% of them had findings that were considered contraindications for surgery. In spite the relatively high prevalence of H. pylori in our cohort (41%; 95% CI 36–46%), the proportion of patients who had plan-changing abnormalities did not differ markedly from other studies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms were the only significant predictors of EGD findings (P = 0.009). Conclusions: GERD and sleep apnea symptoms can be strong predictors of EGD abnormalities. However, this evidence is still not enough to safely recommend changing the current practice. Therefore, until a sensitive clinical prediction score is derived and validated according to the symptoms, we suggest that EGD should continue as the standard of care in all patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
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Eosinophil counts in colonic tissue eosinophilia: Investigating specificity and sensitivity of cutoff points and comparing two counting methods p. 39
Heyam A Awad, Yousef E Abu Osba, Mohammad A Shaheen, Ammar R Sfeira
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_381_19  PMID:31997777
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of eosinophil cutoff points defining the colonic tissue eosinophilia (TE) and compare the yield of reporting the highest count versus the mean of five high-power fields (HPFs). Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy-one cases of colonic TE, including 22 primary eosinophilic colitis (PEC) cases, were compared to one hundred and twenty-one normal controls in the University of Jordan. The highest eosinophil count (EC) and the mean of five HPFs were recorded. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to find the cutoff point with the best sensitivity and specificity. Results: There was no significant advantage of counting five fields over counting the most densely populated HPF. Using 30 eosinophils per HPF achieved 80% sensitivity and 65% specificity. This point is close to the mean in normal controls plus one standard deviation (SD) (29 per HPF). However, there was overlap between normal counts and TE, using 30 as a cutoff point resulted in 35% false-positive rate. There was no reliable cutoff point to differentiate PEC from secondary TE. Conclusion: We recommend reporting the highest EC in colonic biopsies and using 30 as a cutoff point, bearing in mind the overlap with normal and correlating with the clinical team to not treat asymptomatic patients. Clinicopathological correlation is essential to separate PEC from secondary TE.
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Operable gastric adenocarcinoma with different histological subtypes: Cancer-specific survival in the United States p. 46
Chun-Lin Lin, Guang-Wei Zhu, Yong-Jian Huang, Wei Zheng, Shu-Gang Yang, Jian-Xin Ye
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_406_19  PMID:32031158
Background/Aims: Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC), a subtype of adenocarcinoma, has been considered a histological type with poor survival. We aimed to compare the survival outcomes between patients with GSRC and patients with gastric non-signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (NGSRC) and constructed a nomogram to predict gastric adenocarcinoma-specific survival (GCSS). Patients and Methods: We identified 10,031 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database and stratified them into two histological type groups: GSRC and NGSRC. We used propensity score matching and identified 4304 patients (training cohort) to assess the effect of the histological type on GCSS with Kaplan–Meier curves, and constructed a predictive nomogram. The accuracy of the nomogram was tested on the remaining 5727 patients (validation cohort) with concordance index (C-index) values, calibration curves, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: We found that the histological type SRC was not associated with significantly poor survival (5-year survival rate: 46.1% vs 46.7%, P = 0.822). GSRC patients had similar GCSS rates compared to those with NGSRC in each tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) stage (allP > 0.05). The nomogram showed that histological type was a relatively weak predictor of survival. The C-index value of the nomogram for predicting survival was 0.720, similar to that in the validation cohort (0.724). Conclusions: Patients with GSRC had a similar prognosis to those with NGSRC. The proposed nomogram allowed a relatively accurate survival prediction for operable GA patients after gastrectomy.
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The impact of inpatient capsule endoscopy on the need for therapeutic interventions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding p. 53
Majid Alsahafi, Paula Cramer, Nazira Chatur, Fergal Donnellan
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_415_19  PMID:31997779
Background/Aim: There are limited data evaluating the impact of inpatient video capsule endoscopy (VCE) on the need for therapeutic interventions in hospitalized patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of inpatient VCE on the need for therapeutic interventions and rehospitalization for recurrent bleeding. Patients and Methods: Hospitalized patients who underwent VCE for OGIB indication were retrospectively included. Clinical data were collected including therapeutic interventions performed after VCE. Specific therapeutic interventions were defined as the medical, endoscopic, or surgical treatment directly targeting the cause of OGIB. Patients were followed up to determine the rate of rehospitalization. Results: A total of 48 inpatient VCE were identified, of which 43 VCE were performed for OGIB indication and were included for analysis. The completion rate and the diagnostic yield were 78.5% and 55.8%, respectively. Subsequent specific therapeutic interventions were performed in 65.2% and 5.8% of patients with positive and negative VCE, respectively (P < 0.001). After a median follow up of 30 months (minimum 12, maximum 58), rehospitalization for recurrent bleeding occurred in 30.4% and 17% of patients with positive and negative VCE, respectively. Patients with angiodysplasia on VCE were significantly more likely to be readmitted (P = 0.02). Throughout the course of the follow-up, only 2 (11.7%) patients with negative VCE underwent specific therapeutic interventions. Conclusion: Inpatient VCE is an effective tool to identify patients who need specific therapeutic interventions. Patients with negative VCE are unlikely to be readmitted or require specific therapeutic interventions in the index admission.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography safe during pregnancy? p. 61
Qilin Tang, Kai Zhang
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_624_19  PMID:31997780
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