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Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous suspension of black cumin Nigella sativa on necrotizing agents-induced gastric injury in experimental animals
Ibrahim A Al Mofleh, Abdulqader A Alhaider, Jaber S Mossa, Mohammed O Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed A Al-Yahya, Syed Rafatullah, Shaffi A Shaik
July-September 2008, 14(3):128-134
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.41731  PMID:19568521
Background/Aim: Previous studies on "Black seed" or "Black Cumin" Nigella sativa (NS) have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin) in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically. Results: An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities.
  33 9,843 1,340
Helicobacter pylori infection in developing countries: The burden for how long?
Barik A Salih
July-September 2009, 15(3):201-207
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.54743  PMID:19636185
Approximately 50% (over 3 billion) of the world populations are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori , mainly in the developing countries . Among those, hundreds of millions of people develop peptic ulceration during their lifetime and still tens of millions might progress to gastric cancer. Possible modes of H. pylori transmission generally described are through direct contact between family members and also through contaminated water and food. Because the high prevalence of infection occurs mainly in developing countries and because the test-and-treat strategy puts a huge economic burden on many of these countries, it is time to take an immediate action toward this bacterial infection and adopt a strategy to prevent it. To address this issue, an updated prevalence of infection, modes of transmission, economics of infection and preventative measures to block the infection process have been discussed.
  29 7,004 1,466
Functional bowel disorders in Iranian population using Rome III criteria
Majid Sorouri, Mohammad A Pourhoseingholi, Mohsen Vahedi, Azadeh Safaee, Bijan Moghimi-Dehkordi, Asma Pourhoseingholi, Manijeh Habibi, Mohammad R Zali
July-September 2010, 16(3):154-160
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65183  PMID:20616409
Background/Aim: To study the prevalence and risk factors of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Iranian community using Rome III criteria. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional household survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran, including 18,180 participants who were selected randomly and interviewed face-to-face by a validated questionnaire based on Rome III criteria. Results: In all, 1.1% met the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 2.4% for functional constipation (FC), and 10.9% of the participants had any type of FBD. Among participants with functional dyspepsia, 83.8% had FBD; the majority cases were unspecified functional bowel disorder (U-FBD). Of the subjects fulfilling the IBS criteria, IBS with constipation (52%) was the most frequent subtype. In the multivariate analysis, women had a higher risk of any FBDs than men, except for functional diarrhea (FD). The prevalence of FBD, FC and FD increased and IBS decreased with increasing age. Marital status was only associated with a decrease in the risk of FBD and FD, respectively. IBS subtypes compared with FC and FD. There was no significant difference between FC and IBS with constipation (IBS-C), except for self-reported constipation; while, IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) had more symptoms than FD. Conclusion: This study revealed a low rate of FBDs among the urban population of Tehran province. The ROME III criteria itself, and the problems with interpretation of the data collection tool may have contributed in underestimating the prevalence of FBD. In addition the reliability of recall over 6 months in Rome III criteria is questionable for our population.
  28 5,441 860
Assessment of liver fibrosis: Noninvasive means
Thierry Poynard, Rachel Morra, Patrick Ingiliz, Francoise Imbert-Bismut, Dominique Thabut, Djamila Messous, Mona Munteanu, Julien Massard, Yves Benhamou, Vlad Ratziu
October-December 2008, 14(4):163-173
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.43273  PMID:19568532
Liver biopsy, owing to its limitations and risks, is an imperfect gold standard for assessing the severity of the most frequent chronic liver diseases chronic hepatitis C (HCV), B (HBV) non alcoholic (NAFLD) and alcoholic (ALD) fatty liver diseases. This review summarizes the advantages and the limits of the available biomarkers of liver fibrosis. Among a total of 2,237 references, a total of 14 validated serum biomarkers have been identified between 1991 and 2008. Nine were not patented and five were patented. Two alternatives to liver biopsy were the most evaluated FibroTest and Fibroscan. For FibroTest, there was a total of 38 different populations including 7,985 subjects with both FibroTest and biopsy (4,600 HCV, 1,580 HBV, 267 NAFLD, 524 ALD, and 1014 mixed). For Fibroscan, there was a total of 11 published studies including 2,260 subjects (1,466 HCV, 95 cholestatic liver disease, and 699 mixed). For FibroTest, the mean diagnostic value for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis assessed using standardized area under the ROC curves was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.86), without a significant difference between the causes of liver disease, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and alcoholic or non alcoholic fatty liver disease. High-risk profiles of false negative/false positive of FibroTest, mainly Gilbert syndrome, hemolysis and acute inflammation, are present in 3% of the populations. In case of discordance between biopsy and FibroTest, half of the failures can be due to biopsy; the prognostic value of FibroTest is at least similar to that of biopsy in HCV, HBV and ALD. In conclusion this overview of evidence-based data suggests that biomarkers could be used as an alternative to liver biopsy for the first line assessment of fibrosis stage in the four most common chronic liver diseases, namely HCV, HBV, NAFLD and ALD. Neither biomarkers nor biopsy alone is sufficient for taking a definite decision in a given patient; all the clinical and biological data must be taken into account. There is no evidence based data justifying biopsy as a first line estimate of liver fibrosis. Health authorities in some countries have already approved validated biomarkers as the first line procedure for the staging of liver fibrosis.
  22 5,499 1,326
Noninvasive prediction of large esophageal varices in chronic liver disease patients
Arulprakash Sarangapani, Chitra Shanmugam, Muthukumaran Kalyanasundaram, Balamurali Rangachari, Pugazhendhi Thangavelu, Jeevan Kumar Subbarayan
January-March 2010, 16(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.58767  PMID:20065573
Background/Aim: Esophageal varices (EVs) are a serious consequence of portal hypertension in patients with liver diseases. Several studies have evaluated possible noninvasive markers of EVs to reduce the number of unnecessary endoscopies in patients with cirrhosis but without varices. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate noninvasive predictors of large varices (LV). Patients and Methods: The study analyzed 106 patients with liver diseases from January 2007 to March 2008. Relevant clinical parameters assessed included Child-Pugh class, ascites and splenomegaly. Laboratory parameters like hemoglobin level, platelet count, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin, albumin and ultrasonographic characteristics like splenic size, splenic vein size, portal vein diameter were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done on the data for predictors of large EVs. Results: Incidence of large varices was seen in 41%. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors for the presence of LV were palpable spleen, low platelet count, spleen size >13.8 mm, portal vein >13 mm, splenic vein >11.5 mm. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed 0.883 area under curve. Platelet spleen diameter ratio 909 had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.5%, 83% respectively. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia, large spleen size, portal vein size and platelet spleen diameter ratio strongly predicts large number of EVs.
  21 8,618 1,322
Past, present and future of colorectal cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ezzeldin M Ibrahim, Ahmed A Zeeneldin, Tawfik R El-Khodary, Aboelkhair M Al-Gahmi, Bakr M Bin Sadiq
October-December 2008, 14(4):178-182
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.43275  PMID:19568534
Background/Aims: The crude frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC) is second to breast cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To assess the future burden of CRC in the country, we designed a model that takes into consideration the recent lifestyle pattern and the growth and aging of the population. Methods: We compared CRC statistics for KSA (using data from the National Cancer Registry) with that from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) databases of the United States of America (USA). We used the Joinpoint regression program to identify changes in secular trends, while the GLOBOCAN 2002 software was used to project future incidence and mortality. Results: Between 1994 and 2003, age-standardized rates (ASRs) for CRC in KSA almost doubled, as compared to a nonsignificant decline in USA. Between 2001 and 2003, while the annual percent change (APC) of CRC incidence in the USA showed a nonsignificant decrease in females, APC in Saudi females showed a nonsignificant rise of six percent. On the other hand, the rising incidence among Saudi males, during the years 1999 to 2003, was significant, with an APC of 20.5%. The projection model suggested that the incidence of CRC in KSA could increase fourfold in both genders by the year 2030. Conclusions: In KSA, the present and expected increase in CRC rates is alarming. Pragmatic recommendations to face that challenge are discussed. The present work could serve as a model to study other prevalent types of cancer, particularly in developing countries.
  20 5,436 866
Molecular gate keepers succumb to gene aberrations in colorectal cancer in Kashmiri population, revealing a high incidence area
A Syed Sameer, Shakeel Ul Rehman, Arshad A Pandith, Nidda Syeed, Zaffar A Shah, Nissar A Chowdhri, Khursheed A Wani, Mushtaq A Siddiqi
October-December 2009, 15(4):244-252
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.56102  PMID:19794270
Background/Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading malignancies worldwide and has been reported to show geographical variation in its incidence, even within areas of ethnic homogeneity. The aim of this study was to identify p53 and K-ras gene mutations in CRC patients in a Kashmiri population, and to assess whether these mutations are linked with clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Paired tumor and normal tissue samples from a consecutive series of 53 patients undergoing resective surgery for CRC were prospectively studied for p53 and K-ras gene mutations by PCR/single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Results: Less than half (45%, 19/42) of the patients presented mutations in the p53 gene. Twenty eight mutations were found in the p53 gene, which comprised of 23 substitutions (17 transitions + 6 transversions), and five insertions. The 23 substitutions constituted 18 missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, and three silent mutations. Of the 28 mutations (7.14%) observed in this study, 2 were not previously reported for CRC samples and were identified as novel p53 mutations. A few patients (22.64%, 12/53) presented with mutations in K-ras, constituting 13 missense mutations, out of which 11 were G→A transitions, one was a G→C transversion, and one a G→T transversion. More than half (61.5%) of the mutations occurred in codon 12 whereas a few (38.5%) occurred in codon 13. One tumor contained missense mutations in both codons. Comparison of the mutation profiles of our patients with those of other ethnic populations and regions reflected both differences and similarities, indicating co-exposure to a unique set of risk factors. Conclusion: Mutations of the p53 and K-ras genes are some of the most common genetic changes in the development of human CRC. The high frequency of p53 gene mutations implicates p53 as a predominant factor for CRC in the high-risk ethnic Kashmiri population.
  19 4,287 664
Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia
Eyad M Salem, Talay Yar, Abdullah O Bamosa, Abdulaziz Al-Quorain, Mohamed I Yasawy, Raed M Alsulaiman, Muhammad A Randhawa
July-September 2010, 16(3):207-214
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65201  PMID:20616418
Background/Aim: A large number of diseases are ascribed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), particularly chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Successful treatment of H. pylori infection with antimicrobial agents can lead to regression of H. pylori-associated disorders. Antibiotic resistance against H. pylori is increasing, and it is necessary to find new effective agents. Nigella sativa seed (NS), a commonly used herb, possesses in vitro anti-helicobacter activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS in eradication of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspeptic patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 88 adult patients attending King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2008, with dyspeptic symptoms and found positive for H. pylori infection by histopathology and urease test. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving i) triple therapy (TT) comprising of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole [n= 23], ii) 1 g NS + 40 mg omeprazole (OM) [n= 21], iii) 2 g NS + OM [n= 21] or iv) 3 g NS + OM [n= 23]. Negative H. pylori stool antigen test four weeks after end of treatment was considered as eradication. Results: H. pylori eradication was 82.6, 47.6, 66.7 and 47.8% with TT, 1 g NS, 2 g NS and 3 g NS, respectively. Eradication rates with 2 g NS and TT were statistically not different from each other, whereas H. pylori eradication with other doses was significantly less than that with TT (P < 0.05). Dyspepsia symptoms improved in all groups to a similar extent. Conclusions: N. sativa seeds possess clinically useful anti-H. pylori activity, comparable to triple therapy. Further clinical studies combining N. sativa with antibiotics are suggested.
  19 10,302 1,369
Role of albendazole in the management of hydatid cyst liver
Shams-Ul-Bari , Sajad Hussain Arif, Ajaz A Malik, Abdul Rouf Khaja, Tufale A Dass, Zahoor A Naikoo
September-October 2011, 17(5):343-347
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.84493  PMID:21912062
Background/Aim: Hydatidosis has a worldwide distribution and the liver is the most common organ involved. Hydatid cysts of the liver can be managed either by nonoperative or operative methods. Nonoperative methods include chemotherapy and percutaneous treatment. The study aimed at understanding the effect of albendazole therapy on the viability of protoscoleces and recurrence rate of hydatid disease of the liver. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Kashmir, India, over a period of 2 years from January 2002 to December 2003, with further follow-up of 5 years. The study included 72 cases in the age group of 17-66 years, comprising 39 males and 33 females. The patients were randomized into two groups of 36 patients each. In group A, patients were directly subjected to surgery, while in group B, patients were administered albendazole for 12 weeks preoperatively, followed by a further postoperative course for 12 weeks. Results: Of patients who received albendazole therapy, no patient had viable cysts at the time of surgery, as compared to 94.45% of the patients who did not receive any preoperative albendazole (P<0.01). In patients who did not receive any albendazole therapy, recurrence rate was 16.66%, while no recurrence was seen in patients who received albendazole therapy ( P≤0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that albendazole is an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of hydatid liver disease.
  19 4,314 692
Meckel's diverticulum-Revisited
Ajaz A Malik, Shams-ul-Bari , Khurshid A Wani, Abdul R Khaja
January-March 2010, 16(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.58760  PMID:20065566
Meckel's diverticulum is a true intestinal diverticulum that results from the failure of the vitelline duct to obliterate during the fifth week of fetal development. In about 50% cases, it contains ectopic or heterotopic tissue which can be the cause of complications. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to study the history, incidence, embryoanatomy, clinical presentation, complication and management of Meckel's diverticulum. Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract, it is often difficult to diagnose. It may remain asymptomatic or it may mimic disorders such as Crohn's disease, appendicitis and peptic ulcer disease.
  19 6,772 2,080
Association of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir Valley
Manzoor A Malik, Kiran L Sharma, Showket A Zargar, Balraj Mittal
September-October 2011, 17(5):301-306
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.84480  PMID:21912055
Background/Aim: Degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be an essential step in the complicated process of hematogenous metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is a small secreted proteolytic enzyme with a broad substrate specificity, and its expression has been shown to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis for various cancers. Patients and Methods: To document the role of MMP-7 polymorphism in esophageal carcinogenesis, a case-control study was performed comprising 135 patients with esophageal cancer (EC) and 195 healthy controls. Genotyping was done by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 - test and logistic regression models. Results: Carriers for the MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG were associated with an increased risk for EC [odds ratio (OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-3.92; P = 0.010; P-trend = 0.04]. Also, in a recessive model, our results showed that MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG allele conferred significantly higher risk for EC (OR =2.16; 95% CI = 1.31-3.54; P = 0.003). The high risk due to MMP-7 (-181GG) genotype was limited to squamous cell histology of EC (OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 1.27-4.56; P = 0.007). Although smoking (Hukka) and high consumption of salted tea are independent risk factors for EC, the interaction of MMP-7 (-181A>G) genotypes with these factors did not further modulate the risk of EC. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results show that MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG carriers are at a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir valley.
  18 3,599 638
Occult hepatitis B infection and its possible impact on chronic hepatitis C virus infection
Peiman Habibollahi, Saeid Safari, Nasser E Daryani, Seyed M Alavian
October-December 2009, 15(4):220-224
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.56089  PMID:19794265
As a well-recognized clinical phenomenon, persistent detectable viral genome in liver or sera in the absence of other serological markers for active hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is called occult HBV infection. The main mechanism through which occult infection occurs is not completely understood and several possible explanations, such as integration into human genome and maintenance in peripheral mononuclear cells, exist. Occult HBV infection has been reported in different populations, especially among patients with Hepatitis C (HCV) related liver disease. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients with chronic HCV infection has been previously investigated and the evidence suggests a possible correlation with lower response to anti-viral treatment, higher grades of liver histological changes, and also developing hepatocellular carcinoma. However, in the absence of conclusive results, further studies should be conducted to absolutely assess the impact of occult HBV contamination on the HCV related liver disease.
  18 5,922 1,842
Reversal of liver fibrosis
Mona H Ismail, Massimo Pinzani
January-March 2009, 15(1):72-79
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.45072  PMID:19568569
Hepatic fibrosis is a scarring process associated with an increased and altered deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver. It is caused by a variety of stimuli and if fibrosis continues unopposed, it would progress to cirrhosis which poses a significant health problem worldwide. At the cellular and molecular level, this progressive process is characterized by cellular activation of hepatic stellate cells and aberrant activity of transforming growth factor-β with its downstream cellular mediators. Liver biopsy has been the reference test for assessment of hepatic fibrosis, but because of its limitations, noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis were developed. Liver fibrosis or cirrhosis was considered irreversible in the past but progress of research on the molecular pathogenesis of liver fibrosis has shown that hepatic cellular recovery is possible. Currently, no acceptable therapeutic strategies exist, other than removal of the fibrogenic stimulus, to treat this potentially devastating disease.
  17 7,437 1,215
Clinico-pathological patterns of colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: Younger with an advanced stage presentation
Abdulrahman M Aljebreen
April-June 2007, 13(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.32183  PMID:19858619
Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological features of CRC in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed to have CRC at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 10 year period (1995-2005). The data collected from medical files, endoscopy and imaging reports included age, gender, clinical presentation, smoking, relevant past or family history, site and size of the tumor, stage, carcinoembryonic antigen level and tumor grade. Results: A total of 113 patients were included over the 10 year period. The average age at diagnosis was 55 years (S.D.=15), 58% of the patients were males and 42% were females. Thirty-seven percent of the patients were 50 years of age or younger. The most common clinical presentation was abdominal pain (68%) followed by rectal bleeding (62%) and weight loss (55%). Left-sided lesions and rectal cancer constituted 76% and 48% of all CRC tumors respectively. Sixty-eight percent of lesions were stage C and above. Forty-five percent of patients presented with complete large bowel obstruction. Conclusion: In this analysis, we found that Saudi patients were more likely to present with colorectal cancer at a more advanced stage of the disease and at younger ages compared to Western populations. This data suggests the need for a mass screening program to be implemented for this common and preventable cancer in Saudi Arabia.
  17 7,556 999
Exaggerated liver injury induced by renal ischemia reperfusion in diabetes: Effect of exenatide
Jitendra D Vaghasiya, Navin R Sheth, Yagnik S Bhalodia, Nurudin P Jivani
July-September 2010, 16(3):174-180
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65187  PMID:20616412
Background/Aim: This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of exenatide (Glucagon like Peptide-1 receptor agonist) on liver injury (distant organ) induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo renal IR was performed in both type 2 diabetic and normal rats. Each protocol comprised ischemia for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 24 hours and a treatment period of 14 days before induction of ischemia. Results: Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in liver tissue were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Exenatide treatment significantly normalized (P < 0.01), these biochemical parameters in treated rats compared to diabetic IR rats. Serum creatinine phosphokinase activity and liver function enzymes were also significantly normalized (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively), after administration of exenatide. Conclusion: Exenatide exerted protective effect on exaggerated remote organ (liver) injury induced by renal IR in diabetes.
  16 5,333 767
The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children
Nehal M El-Koofy, Ghada M Anwar, Mona S El-Raziky, Ahmad M El-Hennawy, Fatma M El-Mougy, Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Fetouh M Hassanin, Heba M Helmy
January-February 2012, 18(1):44-49
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.91738  PMID:22249092
Background/Aim: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in overweight/obese children with clinical hepatomegaly and/or raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Patients and Methods: Thirty-three overweight and obese children, aged 2-13 years, presenting with hepatomegaly and/or raised ALT, were studied for the prevalence of MS, IR and NAFLD. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver biochemical profile, in addition to liver ultrasound and liver biopsy. Results: Twenty patients (60.6%) were labeled with MS. IR was present in 16 (48.4%). Fifteen (44%) patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. Patients with MS were more likely to have NAFLD by biopsy (P=0.001). Children with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG, fasting insulin, and lower HDL-c compared to patients with normal liver histology (P< 0.05) and fitted more with the criteria of MS (80% vs. 44%). IR was significantly more common among NAFLD patients (73% vs. 28%). Conclusion: There is a close association between obesity, MS, IR and NAFLD. Obese children with clinical or biochemical hepatic abnormalities are prone to suffer from MS, IR and NAFLD.
  16 4,737 939
Irritable bowel syndrome in a Bangladeshi urban community: Prevalence and health care seeking pattern
Irin Perveen, Mahmud Hasan, Mohammed A Masud, Mohammed M.R Bhuiyan, Mohammed M Rahman
October-December 2009, 15(4):239-243
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.56099  PMID:19794269
Background/Aims : Although irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, its prevalence is unknown, especially in the urban population of Bangladesh. This community-based study aimed to find out the prevalence of IBS and healthcare-seeking patterns using the Rome-II definition. Materials and Methods : A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1503 persons aged 15 years and above was carried out in an urban community of Bangladesh. The subjects were interviewed using a valid questionnaire based on Rome-II criteria in a home setting. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Programmers and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results : A response rate of 97.2% yielded 1503 questionnaires for analysis. The prevalence of IBS was found to be 7.7% (n = 116) with a male to female ratio of 1:1.36 (49 vs. 67). "Diarrhoea-predominant IBS" (50%, n = 58) was the predominant IBS subgroup. Symptoms of abdominal pain associated with a change in stool frequency (100%) and consistency (88.8%) were quite common. All IBS symptoms were more prevalent among women (P < 0.000). In the past one year, 65.5% (n = 76) IBS subjects had consulted a physician with a slightly higher rate of women consulters (68.6 vs. 61.2%). The main predictor for healthcare-seeking was the presence of multiple dyspeptic symptoms. Conclusions : The prevalence of IBS in the urban community was found to be similar to that in rural communities. A higher rate of consultation was found among urban IBS subjects than in the rural subjects, with sex not seen to be a discriminator to seek consultation.
  15 3,308 638
Non-invasive predictors of esophageal varices
Jijo V Cherian, Nandan Deepak, Rajesh Prabhu Ponnusamy, Aravindh Somasundaram, V Jayanthi
January-February 2011, 17(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.74470  PMID:21196656
Background/Aim: Current guidelines recommend screening cirrhotic patients with an endoscopy to detect esophageal varices and to institute prophylactic measures in patients with large esophageal varices. In this study, we aimed at identifying non-endoscopic parameters that could predict the presence and grades of esophageal varices. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 229 newly diagnosed patients with liver cirrhosis, without a history of variceal bleeding, were included. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters were recorded. Esophageal varices were classified as small and large, at endoscopy. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to identify independent predictors for the presence and grades of varices. Results: Of the 229 patients (141 males; median age 42 years; range 17-73 years) with liver cirrhosis, 97 (42.3%) had small and 81 (35.4%) had large varices. On multivariate analysis, low platelet count (Odd's Ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-14.9), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.3), spleen diameter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.9) and portal vein diameter (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3) were independent predictors for the presence of varices. Likewise, for the presence of large esophageal varices, low platelet count (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.3-6.5) and spleen diameter (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were the independent risk factors. Conclusion: The presence and higher grades of varices can be predicted by a low platelet count, Child-Pugh class B/C and spleen diameter. These may be considered as non-endoscopic predictors for the diagnosis and management of large grade varices.
  15 6,932 1,070
Understanding the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis and potential therapeutic approaches
Areeba Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad
May-June 2012, 18(3):155-167
Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a progressive condition with serious clinical complications arising from abnormal proliferation and amassing of tough fibrous scar tissue. This defiance of collagen fibers becomes fatal due to ultimate failure of liver functions. Participation of various cell types, interlinked cellular events, and large number of mediator molecules make the fibrotic process enormously complex and dynamic. However, with better appreciation of underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the assumption that HF cannot be cured is gradually changing. Recent findings have underlined the therapeutic potential of a number of synthetic compounds as well as plant derivatives for cessation or even the reversal of the processes that transforms the liver into fibrotic tissue. It is expected that future inputs will provide a conceptual framework to develop more specific strategies that would facilitate the assessment of risk factors, shortlist early diagnosis biomarkers, and eventually guide development of effective therapeutic alternatives.
  15 10,602 1,849
Spontaneous rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma - sequential management with transcatheter arterial embolization and resection
Vaibhav Jain, Vijay Ramachandran, Rachana Garg, Sujoy Pal, Shivanand R Gamanagatti, Deep N Srivastava
April-June 2010, 16(2):116-119
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.61240  PMID:20339183
Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of liver and is often asymptomatic. Spontaneous rupture is rare but has a catastrophic outcome if not promptly managed. Emergent hepatic resection has been the treatment of choice but has high operative mortality. Preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) can significantly improve outcome in such patients. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of giant hepatic hemangioma that presented with abdominal pain and shock due to hemoperitoneum. Patient was successfully managed by TAE, followed by tumor resection. TAE is an effective procedure in symptomatic hemangiomas, and should be considered in such high risk patients prior to surgery.
  14 9,287 915
Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in children with chronic disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Soad M Jaber
January-April 2006, 12(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.27740  PMID:19858580
Background : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen in gastrointestinal disorders. Seroprevalence among asymptomatic and chronically diseased children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was determined to gain insight into its prevalence. Methods : Serum samples obtained from 1432 children; 543 asymptomatic and 889 chronically diseased children (diabetes, chronic asthma, chronic hemolytic anemia, neurological impairment and Down's syndrome); were tested by ELIZA for H. pylori IgG antibodies. Demographic data obtained including nationality, gender, age and disease status. Results : One hundred and twenty eight (23.6%) of 543 asympatomatic children were seropositive with no significant difference in seroprevalence of infection between Saudi and non-Saudi (p<0.09) and between boys and girls (p<0.67), but significant rise was notice with increasing age (p<0.001). An increase in risk of H. pylori among chronically diseased children was observed (diabetes: 34.4%, chronic asthma 20.4%, chronic hemolytic anemia: 31.7%, neurological impairment: 32.1%, and Down's syndrome: 29.2%) which increased significantly in chronic anemia and neurological impairment (p<0.01 and p<0.05) compared to controls. The prevalence did not differ according to nationality and gender but significantly increased with age in chronic asthma, chronic anemia and neurological impairment (p<0.01 for all) and also increased significantly with duration of illness, number of blood transfusions, number of hospital admission and mode of feeding. Conclusion : Infection with H. pylori seems to occur early in life and its prevalence increased with age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of H. pylori infection was significantly increased within children suffering from chronic hemolytic anemia; neurological impairment compared to controls and was significantly related to severity of the chronic disease.
  14 5,263 575
Helicobacter Pylori: Prevalence and relationship with abdominal pain in school children in makkah city, western Saudi Arabia
Abdulwahab MA Telmesani
April-June 2009, 15(2):100-103
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.45359  PMID:19568573
Background/Aim: The published data on Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) prevalence and its relationship with abdominal pain in Saudi Arabia is scarce. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of H. pylori and its relationship with chronic recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among school students in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fourteen school students, 103 at the intermediate level (grades 7-9) aged 12-15 years and 211 at the secondary level (grades 10-12) aged 15-18 years were tested for H. pylori. Urea breath test (UBT) was used for this purpose. Children with chronic RAP were identified as per the Apley criteria. Results: Overall, the UBT was positive in 86/314 (27.4%) students. It was positive in 45/103 (43.7%) intermediate school students and 41/211 (19.4%) secondary students. Out of the 55 students with chronic RAP, 40 (73%) were positive for H. pylori . Further, 62.9% and 82.1% were positive among the intermediate and secondary school students with RAP, respectively. The overall and specific odds ratios of RAP were 12.35 [95% confidence interval (C.I.) 6.30-24.22] and 10.40 (95% C.I. 1.75-11.73) for the intermediate school students and 22.69 (95% C.I. 7.99-64.44) for the secondary school students. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori among the school children in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, is relatively low compared with developing countries. The prevalence was found to be higher among the younger age group. Further, there was a significant relation between H. pylori infection and RAP among the school students.
  14 5,182 697
Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparison of primary outcome measures
Jawad Khalil, Roohul Muqim, Mohammad Rafique, Mansoor Khan
July-August 2011, 17(4):236-240
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82574  PMID:21727728
Background/Aim: The aim of the study was to compare laparoscopic and open appendectomy (OA) in terms of primary outcome measures. Study design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of the study: Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, February 2008 to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A total of 160 patients were divided into two groups, A and B. Group A patients were subjected to laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), whereas Group B patients were subjected to OA. Data regarding age, gender, and primary outcome measures, such as hospital stay, operative duration, and postoperative complication, were recorded and analyzed. Percentages were calculated for categorical data, whereas numerical data were represented as mean ± SD. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare categorical and numerical variables, respectively. Probability ≤ 0.05 (P ≤ 0.05) was considered significant. Results: After randomization, 72 patients in group A and 75 patients in group B were analyzed. The mean age of patients in groups A and B was 23.09 ± 8.51 and 23.12 ± 10.42 years, respectively, (P = 0.981). The mean hospital stay was 1.52 ± 0.76 days in group A and 1.70 ± 1.06 days in group B (P = 0.294). The mean operative duration in group A and B were 47.54 ± 12.82 min and 31.36 ± 11.43 min, respectively (P < 0.001). Pain (overall level) was significantly less in group A compared with group B (P = 0.004). The two groups were comparable in terms of other postoperative complications, such as hematoma (P = 0.87), paralytic ileus (P = 0.086), urinary retention (P = 0.504), and wound infection (P = 0.134). Conclusion: LA is an equivalent procedure and not superior to OA in terms of primary outcome measures.
  14 4,242 954
Intestinal obstruction due to an anomalous congenital band
Cyrochristos Dimitrios, Alexiou A George, Ziogas Dimosthenis, Xiropotamos Nikolaos
January-March 2008, 14(1):36-37
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.37806  PMID:19568494
We report a case of a 20-year-old male who presented with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. The patient reported no previous history of abdominal surgery or trauma while clinical and radiographic examinations were not diagnostic. An open laparotomy was subsequently performed and the intraoperative findings were consistent with a congenital band extending from the antimesenteric wall of the jejunum to the root of mesentery. The band was ligated and divided with an uneventful postoperative course. Congenital bands are extremely rare. Their exact incidence is still unknown and usually observed in childhood. This case, therefore, represents an unusual surgical problem in an older individual in which the diagnosis was clinically unexpected.
  13 9,070 548
Hepatitis B virus sero-prevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia
Mohammed A Alrowaily, Mostafa A Abolfotouh, Mazen S Ferwanah
April-June 2008, 14(2):70-72
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.39621  PMID:19568503
Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended the antenatal clinic from June 2005 to June 2006 for the first time - before 38 weeks of gestation - constituted the target of the present study. Blood samples 30-39 were drawn from all subjects and sera were tested for HBV serologic markers including Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc using ELISA technique (third generation). Results : The overall prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg among pregnant women was 1.6%. As age increased, the prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg significantly increased (χ2 = 116.43, P < 0.001), 30-39 were women aged ≥40 were five times more likely to be positive for HBsAg as compared to those <30 years (OR = 4.78). On the other hand, women aged 40 and over were five times more likely to be susceptible to infection with hepatitis as compared to young women aged <20 (OR = 5.15). Women susceptible to HBV infection constituted about 80% of all pregnant females. Conclusion : These findings reflect that the full impact of the Hepatitis B vaccination program that was conducted in 1989 for all Saudi children has not yet reached all pregnant women, with the majority (79.9%) being nonimmune and thus liable to HBV infection. Postpartum HB immunization should be recommended in such cases.
  13 5,620 723
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