Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   2010| July-September  | Volume 16 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 7, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Functional bowel disorders in Iranian population using Rome III criteria
Majid Sorouri, Mohammad A Pourhoseingholi, Mohsen Vahedi, Azadeh Safaee, Bijan Moghimi-Dehkordi, Asma Pourhoseingholi, Manijeh Habibi, Mohammad R Zali
July-September 2010, 16(3):154-160
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65183  PMID:20616409
Background/Aim: To study the prevalence and risk factors of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Iranian community using Rome III criteria. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional household survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran, including 18,180 participants who were selected randomly and interviewed face-to-face by a validated questionnaire based on Rome III criteria. Results: In all, 1.1% met the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 2.4% for functional constipation (FC), and 10.9% of the participants had any type of FBD. Among participants with functional dyspepsia, 83.8% had FBD; the majority cases were unspecified functional bowel disorder (U-FBD). Of the subjects fulfilling the IBS criteria, IBS with constipation (52%) was the most frequent subtype. In the multivariate analysis, women had a higher risk of any FBDs than men, except for functional diarrhea (FD). The prevalence of FBD, FC and FD increased and IBS decreased with increasing age. Marital status was only associated with a decrease in the risk of FBD and FD, respectively. IBS subtypes compared with FC and FD. There was no significant difference between FC and IBS with constipation (IBS-C), except for self-reported constipation; while, IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) had more symptoms than FD. Conclusion: This study revealed a low rate of FBDs among the urban population of Tehran province. The ROME III criteria itself, and the problems with interpretation of the data collection tool may have contributed in underestimating the prevalence of FBD. In addition the reliability of recall over 6 months in Rome III criteria is questionable for our population.
  28 6,105 914
Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia
Eyad M Salem, Talay Yar, Abdullah O Bamosa, Abdulaziz Al-Quorain, Mohamed I Yasawy, Raed M Alsulaiman, Muhammad A Randhawa
July-September 2010, 16(3):207-214
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65201  PMID:20616418
Background/Aim: A large number of diseases are ascribed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), particularly chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Successful treatment of H. pylori infection with antimicrobial agents can lead to regression of H. pylori-associated disorders. Antibiotic resistance against H. pylori is increasing, and it is necessary to find new effective agents. Nigella sativa seed (NS), a commonly used herb, possesses in vitro anti-helicobacter activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS in eradication of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspeptic patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 88 adult patients attending King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2008, with dyspeptic symptoms and found positive for H. pylori infection by histopathology and urease test. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving i) triple therapy (TT) comprising of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole [n= 23], ii) 1 g NS + 40 mg omeprazole (OM) [n= 21], iii) 2 g NS + OM [n= 21] or iv) 3 g NS + OM [n= 23]. Negative H. pylori stool antigen test four weeks after end of treatment was considered as eradication. Results: H. pylori eradication was 82.6, 47.6, 66.7 and 47.8% with TT, 1 g NS, 2 g NS and 3 g NS, respectively. Eradication rates with 2 g NS and TT were statistically not different from each other, whereas H. pylori eradication with other doses was significantly less than that with TT (P < 0.05). Dyspepsia symptoms improved in all groups to a similar extent. Conclusions: N. sativa seeds possess clinically useful anti-H. pylori activity, comparable to triple therapy. Further clinical studies combining N. sativa with antibiotics are suggested.
  19 11,925 1,449
Exaggerated liver injury induced by renal ischemia reperfusion in diabetes: Effect of exenatide
Jitendra D Vaghasiya, Navin R Sheth, Yagnik S Bhalodia, Nurudin P Jivani
July-September 2010, 16(3):174-180
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65187  PMID:20616412
Background/Aim: This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of exenatide (Glucagon like Peptide-1 receptor agonist) on liver injury (distant organ) induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo renal IR was performed in both type 2 diabetic and normal rats. Each protocol comprised ischemia for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 24 hours and a treatment period of 14 days before induction of ischemia. Results: Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in liver tissue were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), after IR in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Exenatide treatment significantly normalized (P < 0.01), these biochemical parameters in treated rats compared to diabetic IR rats. Serum creatinine phosphokinase activity and liver function enzymes were also significantly normalized (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively), after administration of exenatide. Conclusion: Exenatide exerted protective effect on exaggerated remote organ (liver) injury induced by renal IR in diabetes.
  16 5,948 809
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cardiovascular changes in cirrhosis: Pathogenesis and clinical implications
Waleed K Al-Hamoudi
July-September 2010, 16(3):145-153
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65181  PMID:20616408
Liver cirrhosis is associated with a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities including hyperdynamic circulation, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. The pathogenic mechanisms of these cardiovascular changes are multifactorial and include neurohumoral and vascular dysregulations. Accumulating evidence suggests that cirrhosis-related cardiovascular abnormalities play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple life-threatening complications including hepatorenal syndrome, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastroesophageal varices, and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Treatment targeting the circulatory dysfunction in these patients may improve the short-term prognosis while awaiting liver transplantation. Careful fluid management in the immediate post-transplant period is extremely important to avoid cardiac-related complications. Liver transplantation results in correction of portal hypertension and reversal of all the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the cardiovascular abnormalities, resulting in restoration of a normal circulation. The following is a review of the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the cardiovascular changes in cirrhosis.
  13 10,279 2,256
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Predictors of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis
Praveen Sharma, Barjesh C Sharma
July-September 2010, 16(3):181-187
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65189  PMID:20616413
Background/Aim: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) impairs patient's daily functioning of life. Predictors of MHE in cirrhotic patients have not been evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 cirrhotic patients (Child A, 74 [37%]; Child B, 72 [36%]; Child C, 54 [27%]) were evaluated by psychometry, P300 auditory event-related potential (P300ERP) and critical flicker frequency (CFF). MHE was diagnosed by abnormal psychometry (>2 S.D.) and P300ERP (>2.5 S.D.). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of MHE. Results: Eighty-two (41%) patients were diagnosed to have MHE - 26/74 (35%) in Child A, 26/72 (36%) in Child B and 30/54 (56%) in Child C. Ninety-seven (48.5%) patients had abnormal psychometric tests, and 96 (48%) had prolonged P300ERP (>358 ms). Sixteen (16.5%) patients with abnormal psychometry had P300ERP < 358 ms, and 15 (14.5%) patients with normal psychometry results had P300ERP > 358 ms. One hundred and three patients had CFF value < 39 Hz with specificity of 86.6% and sensitivity of 72.9% for MHE. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) (17.9 ± 5.7 vs. 13.4 ± 4.2, P = 0.005), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score (8.4 ± 2.5 vs. 7.7 ± 2.2, P = 0.02), ammonia (104.8 ± 37.9 vs. 72.5 ± 45.2 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and CFF (37.0 ± 2.8 vs. 41.0 ± 3.4 Hz, P = 0.001) were significantly higher in MHE as compared to non-MHE patients. Ninety-one (45.5%) patients had MELD > 15.5, 115 (57.5%) had CTP score > 7.5, while 93 (46.5%) had venous ammonia > 84.5 μmol/L. On univariate analysis, MELD (8.52 [95% CI, 4.46-16.26; P = 0.001]), CFF (17.34 [95% CI, 8.16-36.85; P = 0.001]) and venous ammonia (7.80 [95% CI, 4.11-14.81; P = 0.003]) were associated with MHE; while CTP score (1.51 [95% CI, 0.85-2.69; P = 0.30]) was not significant. On multivariate analysis, MELD, CFF and venous ammonia were predictive of MHE. Conclusion: Prevalence of MHE in this study was 41%; and MELD > 15.5, CFF < 39 Hz and venous ammonia > 84.5 μmol/L were predictive of MHE.
  11 5,838 1,210
Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms
Shahinul Alam, Golam Mustafa, Salimur Rahman, Shamsul A Kabir, Harun O Rashid, Mobin Khan
July-September 2010, 16(3):203-206
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65200  PMID:20616417
Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA). The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD) of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%); others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%), obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%), choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%), acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%), acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%), liver abscess (2; 1.4%), hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%), stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%), pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7%) and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%). Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.
  10 4,970 701
CASE REPORTS
Large congenital mesenteric defect presenting in an adult
Zia ur Rehman, Sadaf Khan
July-September 2010, 16(3):223-225
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65193  PMID:20616422
Congenital internal hernia is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in adults and often presents with complications. A high index of suspicion, occasionally aided by appropriate radiological imaging, should lead to early surgical intervention and thus reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with upper abdominal pain and nonspecific abdominal signs. Computed tomography showed features of bowel ischemia which prompted surgical intervention. On exploration, she was found to have a large mesenteric defect with herniating ileum and ascending colon. A segment of gangrenous small bowel was resected. The mesenteric defect was repaired and the bowel tacked down to prevent volvulus. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
  8 6,362 453
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of carcinoma of the esophagus
Mohammad A Bhat, Zahoor A Naikoo, Tufail A Dass, Riyaz A Lone, Abdul M Dar
July-September 2010, 16(3):168-173
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65186  PMID:20616411
Background/Aim: Precise evaluation of lymph node status is one of the most important factors in determining clinical outcome in treating gastro-intestinal (GI) cancer. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping clearly has become highly feasible and accurate in staging GI cancer. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of detection of SLN using methylene blue dye in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and assess its potential role in determining the rational extent of lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients of esophageal cancer diagnosed on endoscopic biopsy were enrolled in this prospective study. After laparotomy, patent methylene blue was injected into the subserosal layer adjacent to the tumor. SLNs were defined as blue stained nodes within a period of 5 min. Standard radical esophagogastrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed in all the patients. All the resected nodes were examined postoperatively by routine hematoxylin and eosin stain for elucidating the presence of metastasis, and the negative SLNs were examined further with cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining. Results: SLNs were detected in 26 (81.25%) patients out of 32 patients who were studied. The number of SLNs ranged from 1 to 4 with a mean value of 1.7 per case. The SLNs of esophageal cancer were only found in N1 area in 21 (80.77%) cases, and in N2 or N3 area in only 19.33%. The overall accuracy of the procedure was 75% in predicting nodal metastasis. SLN had a sensitivity of 85.71% in mid esophageal tumors and 93.33% in lower esophageal tumors. The SLN biopsy had sensitivity of 87.5% in the case of squamous cell carcinoma and 92.86% in the cases of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The accuracy of the procedure for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was 60% and 76.47%, respectively. Conclusion: SLN mapping is an accurate diagnostic procedure for detecting lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer and may indicate rational extent of lymphadenectomy in these patients. SLN mapping provides "right nodes" to the pathologists for detailed analysis and appropriate staging, thereby helping in individualizing the multi-modal treatment for esophageal cancer.
  7 4,828 609
CASE REPORTS
Intraluminal migration of surgical sponge: Gossypiboma
Kundan K Patil, Shaifali K Patil, Kedar P Gorad, Anuradha H Panchal, Sahil S Arora, Raj P Gautam
July-September 2010, 16(3):221-222
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65195  PMID:20616421
Surgical mop retained in the abdominal cavity following surgery is a serious but avoidable complication. The condition may manifest either as an exudative inflammatory reaction with formation of abscess, or aseptically with a fibrotic reaction developing into a mass. Intraluminal migration is relatively rare. We report the case of a 23 year old woman who presented after a previous caesarean section with intestinal obstruction. Plain abdominal radiograph and computed tomography confirmed the presence of gossypiboma. The patient underwent laparatomy and sponge removal. This report discusses the approach to, and manifestations of, migratory surgical gossypiboma.
  6 4,754 519
EDITORIAL
The Rome criteria divides, distorts and dilutes the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome
Kok-Ann Gwee, Uday C Ghoshal
July-September 2010, 16(3):143-144
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65178  PMID:20616407
  6 3,255 645
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Grape seed extract to improve liver function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver change
Manouchehr Khoshbaten, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh, Koorosh Masnadi, Sara Farhang, Mohammad K Tarzamani, Hosain Babaei, Javad Kiani, Maryam Zaare, Farzad Najafipoor
July-September 2010, 16(3):194-197
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65197  PMID:20616415
Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while anti-oxidative materials have shown benefits in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE) significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up.
  6 7,160 930
Systematic review: Should routine resection of the extra-hepatic bile duct be performed in gallbladder cancer?
Parul J Shukla, Savio G Barreto
July-September 2010, 16(3):161-167
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65184  PMID:20616410
Background /Aim: Complete surgical resection is associated with improved outcomes in gallbladder cancer. Whether the extra-hepatic bile duct (EHBD) should be routinely excised for gallbladder cancer is unclear. Objective: To analyze literature concerning EHBD excision to determine if it is associated with survival advantage and hence can be routinely recommended. Materials and Methods: A systematic search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1988-2008. Results: EHBD excision was reported to be performed routinely for T1-4 in some studies, while others reported resection to facilitate lymph node clearance or if the EHBD was grossly involved by disease that remained otherwise resectable. While one study demonstrated 100% survival in T1 disease, other reports do not demonstrate any survival benefit of EHBD excision in T1 disease. Four studies (level IV-V) demonstrated 60% to 90% five-year survival for routine excision in T2 disease, while three other studies demonstrated no survival advantage but increased morbidity due to the procedure. In T3/4 disease, one study (level IV-V) demonstrated a benefit in T4 disease only, and another study (level IV-V) reported a survival advantage in patients in whom the bile duct was not involved; five other studies showed no impact of routine EHBD excision on survival but reported morbidity following anastomotic leaks. Conclusions: Available evidence does not support routine resection of EHBD in gallbladder cancer. EHBD excision should be performed in the presence of specific indications, viz., to achieve an R0 resection of the primary tumor and/ or to aid complete lymph node dissection that would compromise the EHBD by devascularization.
  5 3,979 745
CASE REPORTS
Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach
Mohana S Narasimhamurthy, Gopinathan P Vallachira, Praveen S Mahadev
July-September 2010, 16(3):218-220
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65196  PMID:20616420
In recent years, the synchronous occurrence of tumors of different histotypes arising in the same organ has been reported more frequently in the literature. In the stomach, adenocarcinoma has been described with coexisting primary rhabdomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The simultaneous development of adenocarcinoma and gastric mesenchymal tumor has been documented rarely. We report one such case. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with a proximal gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the presence of another tumor at the gastric antrum. This was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of low risk category (GIST). The literature has only a few previous reports of this very rare association. It is not known whether this synchronicity is incidental or there is a causative factor inducing the development of tumors of different histotypes in the same organ. Pathologists, oncologists and surgeons should be aware of this interesting condition.
  4 3,416 552
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum in adults: Is diverticulectomy indicated?
Leo F Tauro, Celine George, Bangalore S Rao, John J Martis, Leo T Menezes, Hejmadi D Shenoy
July-September 2010, 16(3):198-202
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65199  PMID:20616416
Background/Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of the Meckel's diverticulum (MD) and to study its clinical profile and surgical outcome, as well as to check whether diverticulectomy is indicated for asymptomatic MD in adults. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 1332 patients who were operated upon for acute abdomen during the period August 1999 to July 2009 in a single surgical unit. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and plain x-ray abdomen (erect) were done depending on the necessity. These patients were subjected to laparotomy/ appendicectomy depending on the case. A search for MD was done, and if found, surgical resection and analysis by histopathological confirmation of the resected MD were performed. Results: During the operation, this study detected 15 (1.13%) patients with MD. In none of these cases, preoperative diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulitis was made. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 68 years (mean age, 32.9 years). Out of 15 patients, 9 (60%) were males; 6 (40%) were females. Seven (46.7%) cases were symptomatic due to MD and 8 (53.3%) were asymptomatic. One patient presented with hematochezia; 2, with intestinal obstruction due to gangrene of the MD; and 4, with Meckel's diverticulitis. One patient had duplication of (double) Meckel's diverticulum without any inflammation in both the diverticulae. Histopathological examination of these specimens confirmed 4 cases with inflammation; 2, with gangrene; and 1, with ulcerated gastric mucosa in the MD. Among these, in 2 (13.3%) cases there was heterotopic epithelium (ulcerated gastric mucosa- 1, colonic mucosa- 1). Conclusion: We recommend that a search for MD in every case of appendicectomy/ laparotomy done for acute abdomen should be conducted, and if found, Meckel's diverticulectomy or resection should be performed to avoid secondary complications arising from it.
  4 5,962 699
CASE REPORTS
Giant trichobezoar of duodenojejunal flexure: A rare entity
Mehdi Soufi, Said Benamr, Mehdi Belhassan, Rahal Massrouri, Houria Ouazzani, Bouziane Chad
July-September 2010, 16(3):215-217
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65198  PMID:20616419
Bezoars are concretions of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. Duodenojejunal localization of bezoars is exceptional. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman who experienced nausea, vomiting and severe abdominal pain for one week. By palpation a mobile and sensitive mass, 15 Χ 15 cm, was detected, which filled the upper quadrant. Results of gastric endoscopy were normal. X-ray and ultrasonography suggested a bezoar. A laparotomy revealed that the jejunum was fissured by the trichobezoar ball. This trichobezoar mass was totally excised by intestinal resection. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of duodenojejunal fissuration caused by trichobezoar in an adult. Among patients with high subocclusif syndrome, duodenojejunal bezoar should remain a possibility in differential diagnosis.
  3 3,007 372
NEW HORIZON
Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations
Fazal A Danish, Salman S Koul, Fazal R Subhani, Ahmed E Rabbani, Saeeda Yasmin
July-September 2010, 16(3):230-235
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65182  PMID:20616426
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.
  3 3,294 598
IMAGE QUIZ
Massive air shadow in the abdomen
Bilal Mirza, Lubna Ijaz, Arsalan Qureshi, Afzal Sheikh
July-September 2010, 16(3):239-240
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65190  PMID:20616428
  2 3,417 369
IN FOCUS
Use of budesonide in the treatment of microscopic colitis
Vikram Tangri, Nilesh Chande
July-September 2010, 16(3):236-238
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65188  PMID:20616427
Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, the two types of microscopic colitis, cause watery diarrhea. Budesonide, a glucocorticoid medication with limited systemic availability, is commonly used to treat these illnesses. Budesonide has proven efficacy in the induction of clinical remission in both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Budesonide is effective as a maintenance drug for patients with collagenous colitis, but has not been studied for this indication in patients with lymphocytic colitis. This drug improves quality of life in patients while causing few mild adverse events. Budesonide is an effective treatment of microscopic colitis that is safe and well tolerated.
  2 5,586 653
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Adenomatous colorectal polyps in patients referred for colonoscopy in a regional hospital in Kuwait
Saleh A Al-Enezi, Saqer A Alsurayei, Ali E Ismail, Nasser Yehia A Aly, Waleed A Ismail, Amany A Abou-Bakr
July-September 2010, 16(3):188-193
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65194  PMID:20616414
Background/Aim: Adenomatous colorectal polyps (ACPs) are known to be the precursor lesions for colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, endoscopic and pathological features of ACPs in patients referred for colonoscopy. Patients and Methods: The endoscopic and histological reports of adult patients who underwent complete colonoscopy in the gastroenterology unit of a regional Kuwaiti hospital between January 2008 and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. The specimens of polyps were reviewed by an experienced pathologist who was blinded to the clinical or endoscopic information. Non-neoplastic polyps were not included in the analysis. Results: Of 530 eligible patients (mean age, 45 years; male-female ratio, 2:1), 54 (10%) had 103 ACPs. Of the patients with ACPs (mean age, 57 years), 43 (80%) were males and 36 (67%) were Kuwaitis. Histopathological examination of the most significant polyp in each patient revealed that 40 (74%) polyps were tubular adenomas (TAs); 11 (20%), tubulovillous (TV) adenomas; and 3 (6%), villous adenomas. High-grade dysplasia was noticed in 4 (10%) adenomas. Fifteen (2.8%) of the 530 patients had advanced ACPs. Logistic regression analysis of some variables and their association with ACPs found that age (P < 0.001; OR, 1.9; CI, 1.5-2.3), history of adenoma (P=0.001; OR, 6.4; CI, .2.1-19.4) and being Kuwaitis (P=0.029; OR, 2.1; CI, 1.1-4.1) to be independently associated with ACPs. Conclusion: The most common histological type of ACPs was tubular adenoma. Advancing age, being Kuwaiti nationals and prior removal of ACPs were significantly associated with the occurrence of ACPs.
  2 4,514 439
IMAGE QUIZ
Unusal Cause of Crampy Abdominal Pain
Vipul D Yagnik
July-September 2010, 16(3):241-242
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65191  PMID:20616429
  1 2,639 307
CASE REPORTS
Local excision inadequate in the treatment of anal canal leiomyosarcoma
G Krishna Kumar, Sarath S Chandra, R Krishnan
July-September 2010, 16(3):226-227
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65192  PMID:20616423
Leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is an uncommon neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a 45-year-old lady with anal canal leiomyosarcoma. In view of its rarity, we report its presentation and management. In the setting of a recurrent tumor with high-grade histological appearance, local excision would be deemed unsafe.
  - 2,730 450
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Ectopic pancreatic tissue in the cecum
Vipul D Yagnik, Keyuri B Patel, Paresh A Patel, Faruq I Mulla
July-September 2010, 16(3):228-228
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65179  PMID:20616425
  - 2,608 315
Correspondence to paper by malik A: "Meckel's Diverticulum-Revisited"
Yavuz Beyazit, Murat Kekilli, Mevlut Kurt
July-September 2010, 16(3):228-229
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.65180  PMID:20616424
  - 1,921 303
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