Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   2011| July-August  | Volume 17 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 30, 2011

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Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparison of primary outcome measures
Jawad Khalil, Roohul Muqim, Mohammad Rafique, Mansoor Khan
July-August 2011, 17(4):236-240
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82574  PMID:21727728
Background/Aim: The aim of the study was to compare laparoscopic and open appendectomy (OA) in terms of primary outcome measures. Study design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of the study: Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, February 2008 to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A total of 160 patients were divided into two groups, A and B. Group A patients were subjected to laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), whereas Group B patients were subjected to OA. Data regarding age, gender, and primary outcome measures, such as hospital stay, operative duration, and postoperative complication, were recorded and analyzed. Percentages were calculated for categorical data, whereas numerical data were represented as mean ± SD. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare categorical and numerical variables, respectively. Probability ≤ 0.05 (P ≤ 0.05) was considered significant. Results: After randomization, 72 patients in group A and 75 patients in group B were analyzed. The mean age of patients in groups A and B was 23.09 ± 8.51 and 23.12 ± 10.42 years, respectively, (P = 0.981). The mean hospital stay was 1.52 ± 0.76 days in group A and 1.70 ± 1.06 days in group B (P = 0.294). The mean operative duration in group A and B were 47.54 ± 12.82 min and 31.36 ± 11.43 min, respectively (P < 0.001). Pain (overall level) was significantly less in group A compared with group B (P = 0.004). The two groups were comparable in terms of other postoperative complications, such as hematoma (P = 0.87), paralytic ileus (P = 0.086), urinary retention (P = 0.504), and wound infection (P = 0.134). Conclusion: LA is an equivalent procedure and not superior to OA in terms of primary outcome measures.
  14 4,326 959
Genetic polymorphisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Egyptian children
Nehal M El-Koofy, Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Iman M Mandour, Ghada M Anwar, Mona S El-Raziky, Ahmad M El-Hennawy
July-August 2011, 17(4):265-270
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82582  PMID:21727734
Background/Aim : Polymorphisms in the promoter of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) lead to decreased MTP transcription, less export of triglyceride from hepatocytes, and greater intracellular triglyceride accumulation. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in MTP may be involved in determining susceptibility to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study is to examine the effect of some genetic influences among a group of obese Egyptian children. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 76 overweight and obese children presenting to the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Cairo University Children's Hospital, Egypt, as well as on 20 healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all the patients and they underwent clinical examination, ultrasonographic examination of the liver, and liver biopsy when appropriate. Liver functions, blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, and lipid profile were assessed and HOMA-IR calculated. Blood samples from biopsy-proven NASH patients and controls were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism for the −493 G/T polymorphism in the promoter of MTP and the 1183 T/C polymorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Results : Eight had biopsy-proven simple steatosis and 7 had NASH. NASH patients had a much higher incidence of the MTP G/G genotype (P = 0.002, CI: 2.9-392) compared with the controls. NASH patients also had a 100% prevalence of the MnSOD T/T genotype. Conclusion: Certain genotypes in MTP and MnSOD are significantly more prevalent among obese children with NASH and may be responsible for such a phenotype.
  10 2,418 464
Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Helicobacter pylori isolated from the dyspepsia patients in Tehran, Iran
Leila Shokrzadeh, Fereshteh Jafari, Hossein Dabiri, Kaveh Baghaei, Homayoun Zojaji, Amir H Alizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mohammad R Zali
July-August 2011, 17(4):261-264
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82581  PMID:21727733
Background/Aim: Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen for gastroduodenal diseases. Infection with H. pylori can be limited by regimens of multiple antimicrobial agents. However, antibiotic resistance is a leading cause of treatment failure. The aim of this study has been to determine the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with dyspepsia by agar dilution method, in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods : H. pylori isolates from patients with gastrointestinal diseases were evaluated for susceptibility testing by agar dilution method. Susceptibility testing was performed to commonly used antibiotics including clarithromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. Results: Among 92 patients with dyspepsia, H. pylori strains were isolated from 42 patients. Seventeen (40.5%) of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole (MICs ≥ 8 μg/l), whereas one isolate (2.4%) was resistant to amoxicillin (MICs ≤ 0. 5 μg/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MICs ≤ 1μg/ml). The resistance rates to other antibiotics in H. pylori isolates are recorded as follows: clarithromycin 6 (14.3 %), tetracycline 2 (4.8%). In 5 of 42 resistant cases, combined resistance was found. Conclusions: These data suggest that metronidazole should be used among Iranian patients in first-line therapy with caution, and ciprofloxacin in association with amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor is more recommended.
  9 2,840 423
Short bowel syndrome: A review of management options
Prasad Seetharam, Gabriel Rodrigues
July-August 2011, 17(4):229-235
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82573  PMID:21727727
Extensive resection of the intestinal tract frequently results in inadequate digestion and/or absorption of nutrients, a condition known as short bowel syndrome (SBS). This challenging condition demands a dedicated multidisciplinary team effort to overcome the morbidity and mortality in these patients. With advances in critical care management, more and more patients survive the immediate morbidity of massive intestinal resection to present with SBS. Several therapies, including parenteral nutrition (PN), bowel rehabilitation and surgical procedures to reconstruct bowel have been used in these patients. Novel dietary approaches, pharmacotherapy and timely surgical interventions have all added to the improved outcome in these patients. However, these treatments only partially correct the underlying problem of reduced bowel function and have limited success resulting in 30% to 50% mortality rates. However, increasing experience and encouraging results of intestinal transplantation has added a new dimension to the management of SBS. Literature available on SBS is exhaustive but inconclusive. We conducted a review of scientific literature and electronic media with search terms 'short bowel syndrome, advances in SBS and SBS' and attempted to give a comprehensive account on this topic with emphasis on the recent advances in its management.
  9 7,403 2,019
Diversity of genotype and mode of spread of Hepatitis C virus in Northern India
Harmeet S Rehan, Seema Manak, Madhur Yadav, Deepinder , Deepti Chopra, Neeta Wardhan
July-August 2011, 17(4):241-244
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82576  PMID:21727729
Background/Aim : Hepatitis C is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is classified into 6 genotypes. It leads to chronic hepatitis in 80% of the cases. Genotype of the virus helps in predicting response to antiviral therapy and also the duration of treatment. Therefore, it is important to know the prevalence of each genotype. Knowledge regarding the route of entry of HCV in the blood is also necessary to formulate a strategy to prevent its spread. Patients and Methods : One hundred and two newly diagnosed patients with chronic hepatitis C, having anti-HCV antibody-positive were included in the study. Their HCV RNA viral load and genotype were determined by Reverse Transcriptase PCR assay on Roche Cobas Ampliprep analyzer. Results : Genotype 3 was commonly detected in 58.8% patients followed by genotype 1 in 20.6%. Twelve patients had genotype 4 (11.8%) and 9 had mixed infection with genotypes 3 and 4. Among these patients, 43.1% of patients had a history of multiple injection exposure. Blood transfusion received by 6.9% and 2.9% had donated blood. Only 1 patient had a history of drug abuse. Conclusion : The distribution of genotypes varies in different regions and therefore its knowledge is important, as it determines the response of the patient to the treatment. The use of autodisabled syringes, their proper disposal, following biomedical waste management guidelines, and organizing continued medical education and workshops will help in preventing the spread of HCV infection.
  8 2,246 373
Pattern of liver function tests in morbidly obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery
Ahmad Al Akwaa, Ahmad El Zubier, Mohammed Al Shehri
July-August 2011, 17(4):252-255
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82579  PMID:21727731
Background/Aim: Morbidly obese patients have a high prevalence of fatty liver disease and its serious complications, and high prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFT). The LFT can give a clue to the liver damage and correlate with activity. We aim to study the pattern of LFT in morbidly obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Eastern region. Patients and Methods: Medical records of patients undergoing bariatric surgery were reviewed. Demographic data, comorbid conditions, and medications taken were recorded. Intraoperative liver appearance was noted. Patients with alcohol intake or without LFT were excluded. Results: Out of 113 patients, 15 patients were excluded, and of the remaining 98 patients analyzed, 58.2% were females. Mean age was 33.1 ± 8.87 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 53.7 ± 1.27 kg/m 2 . Abnormal LFT (alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) alkaline phosphatase (ALK), and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GTT) were observed in 17.3%, with 1.5 to 2 times the upper limit of normal. ALT was most elevated in 12.2%. Abdominal ultrasonography was done in 67 (68.4%) patients, of whom 51 (76%) had fatty liver. Comorbid conditions including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, bronchial asthma, and obstructive sleep apnea were observed in 51 (51.50%) patients, eight of them (16.3%) had abnormal LFT. No intraoperative changes of cirrhosis were observed. Conclusion: The prevalence of abnormal LFT is low in morbidly obese patients from the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. A prospective study with a larger sample and liver biopsy, is needed to clarify the findings.
  7 2,798 426
Prevalence of α-1-Antitrypsin gene mutations in Saudi Arabia
Badr Aljarallah, Ahmed Ali, Moataz Dowaidar, Ahmad Settin
July-August 2011, 17(4):256-260
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82580  PMID:21727732
Background/Aim: α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI). The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods : A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype), whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype). The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures.
  5 2,031 331
Insulin resistance, steatosis, and fibrosis in Egyptian patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus infection
Ahlam M Ahmed, Magda S Hassan, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Huwayda Hassan, Ahmad F Hasanain, Ahmed Helmy
July-August 2011, 17(4):245-251
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82578  PMID:21727730
Background/Aim: Both nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are common in Egypt, and their coexistence is expected. There is controversy regarding the influence of NAFLD on chronic HCV disease progression. This study evaluates the effect of NAFLD on the severity of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (necroinflammation and fibrosis) and assesses the relative contribution of insulin resistance syndrome to the occurrence of NAFLD in patients with chronic HCV infection. Patients and Methods: Untreated consecutive adults with chronic HCV infection admitted for liver biopsy were included in this study. Before liver biopsy, a questionnaire for risk factors was completed prospectively, and a blood sample was obtained for laboratory analysis. Results: Our study included 92 male patients. Their mean ± SD age and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level were 42 ± 7.7 years (range 20-56) and 68 ± 41.7 U/L (range 16-214), respectively. The mean insulin level and insulin resistance index were 15.6 ± 18.3 mIU/mL (range 5.1-137.4) and 5.9 ± 15.2 (range 0.9-136.2), respectively. Fifty four percent of patients had steatosis and 65% had fibrosis. In multivariate analyses, steatosis was associated with insulin resistance and fibrosis was associated with high AST level, age ≥40 years, and steatosis. Conclusions: Steatosis is a histopathologic feature in >50% of patients with chronic HCV infection. Insulin resistance has an important role in the pathogenesis of steatosis, which represents a significant determinant of fibrosis together with high serum AST level and older age.
  5 2,405 479
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a day surgery procedure: Is it safe?--An Egyptian experience
Mohamed I Seleem, Shawkat S Gerges, Khalid S Shreif, Ashref E Ahmed, Ahmed Ragab
July-August 2011, 17(4):277-279
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82584  PMID:21727736
Background/Aim: Major surgery performed as a day surgery procedure is not uncommon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of day surgery procedures in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Patients and Methods: A total of 210 patients scheduled for elective LC between 2006 and 2008 were included in our study. The mean age was 40.63 years (range, 25 - 70 years). The indication for surgery was symptomatic cholelithiasis confirmed by ultrasonography without clinical or radiological evidence of acute cholecystitis. All patients were informed about the same-day discharge policy and received the postoperative instruction form on discharge. Preoperative work-up included history taking and physical examination in addition to standard laboratory and radiological tests. Patients above 35 years of age had an ECG done. All patients were examined in the outpatient clinic by a consultant anesthesiologist the night before surgery. Operative time, hospital stay, and complications were recorded. Telephonic feedback, on the morning after surgery was routinely done as an early follow-up. Results: Out of the total number of patients, 140 patients were ASA (I) and 70 were ASA (II) (40 patients were controlled hypertensives and 30 were controlled diabetics). Conversion rate was 1.4%. The mean hospital stay was 6.7 hours (range, 6 - 8 hours). The mean operative time was 31.2 minutes (range, 20 - 60 minutes). None of the patients required an abdominal drain. No morbidities or mortalities were reported in this series. Conclusion: LC may be done as a day surgery procedure with optimal patient satisfaction and without complications.
  4 1,961 365
Outcome of combination antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection during therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Muhammad Ayyub, Soha A El-Moursy, Fahd Al-Abbas
July-August 2011, 17(4):283-286
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82586  PMID:21727738
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not uncommon in patients with acute leukemia due to frequent blood transfusions. The treatment of HCV in patients with acute leukemia can produce profound immune dysfunction with the risk of severe cytopenia. We report the case of a young man who was treated with combined therapy of peginterferon α 2a and ribavirin for HCV while he was on maintenance anti-leukemic treatment. The patient required reduction in the dose of peginterferon α 2a and the addition of filgrastim due to neutropenia. Therapy for HCV was continued for 72 weeks and at the end of therapy, the patient had undetectable HCV RNA. The patient maintained a sustained viral response two years after the end of therapy and developed complete remission of leukemia, whereupon his anti-leukemic therapy was also discontinued. We recommend conducting further large prospective studies in HCV patients treated for leukemia to determine the safety and efficacy of antiviral therapy in this group of patients.
  3 1,686 339
Unsedated colonoscopy: Is it feasible?
Felix W Leung, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen
July-August 2011, 17(4):289-292
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82588  PMID:21727740
Unsedated colonoscopy has been an evolving subject ever since its initial description four decades ago. Failure in unsedated diagnostic cases due to patient pain led to the introduction of sedation. Extension to screening cases, albeit logical, created a sedation-related barrier to colonoscopy screening. In recent years a water method has been developed to combat the pain during unsedated colonoscopy in the US. In randomized controlled trials the water method decreases pain, increases cecal intubation success, and enhances the proportion of patients who complete unsedated colonoscopy. The salvage cleansing of suboptimal bowel preparation by the water method serendipitously may have increased the detection of adenoma in both unsedated and sedated patients. The state-of-the-art lecture concludes that unsedated colonoscopy is feasible. The hypothesis is that recent advances, such as the development of the water method, may contribute to reviving unsedated colonoscopy as a potentially attractive option for colon cancer screening and deserves to be tested.
  3 2,118 336
Chronic abdominal pain in a child
Intezar Ahmed, Sunita Singh, Jile D Rawat
July-August 2011, 17(4):295-296
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82590  PMID:21727742
  2 1,820 254
Massive rectal bleeding: Rare presentation of circumferential solitary rectal ulcer syndrome
Vipul D Yagnik
July-August 2011, 17(4):298-298
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82592  PMID:21727744
  2 2,175 283
How can we reduce the burden of Hepatitis C?
Deepak Amarapurkar
July-August 2011, 17(4):227-228
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82572  PMID:21727726
  1 1,540 276
Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy
Safiyya M Ali, Mazen Hassanain
July-August 2011, 17(4):225-226
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82571  PMID:21727725
  1 1,789 434
A rare retroperitoneal tumor
Athanasios Voutsarakis, Stylianos Kykalos, Dimitris Patsouras, Dimitris Mantas
July-August 2011, 17(4):293-294
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82589  PMID:21727741
  1 1,375 216
Tuberculous appendicitis
Khalid Rabbani, Youssef Narjis, Azzedine Difaa, Abdelouahed Louzi, Radouane Benelkhaiat, Benacer Finech
July-August 2011, 17(4):287-288
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82587  PMID:21727739
Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is quite rare, representing only 3% of all extrapulmonary cases. Involvement of the appendix is rare, only occurring in about 1% of cases. It is usually secondary to tuberculosis elsewhere in the abdomen. A prompt diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion as clinical signs may be nonspecific and microbiological confirmation is difficult. Histopathologic examination is often the only way to reach a diagnosis and to establish specific antibiotic therapy. In these cases, due to the absence of specific symptoms and signs, the diagnosis is delayed until after surgery.
  - 1,742 308
Mediastinal seroma post laparoscopic repair of type IV paraesophageal hernia
Sami A Alnassar
July-August 2011, 17(4):280-282
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82585  PMID:21727737
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia is safe and feasible and can provide comparable results for patients with type IV paraesophageal hernia. We report a rare case of mediastinal seroma in an 80-year-old gentleman who had a giant type IV paraesophageal hernia and was eventually admitted to our hospital for elective laparoscopic repair and recovered very well after surgery with resolution of the atelectatic lungs and air-fluid collection in his chest.
  - 2,530 230
SMAD4 promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri colorectal cancer cases
Aga S Sameer, Mushtaq A Siddiqi
July-August 2011, 17(4):297-297
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82591  PMID:21727743
  - 1,258 244
Feasibility and outcome of proximal catheter ileostomy - A pilot study
Maulana M Ansari, Shakeel Ahmad, Syed H Hasan, Shahla Haleem
July-August 2011, 17(4):271-276
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.82583  PMID:21727735
Background/Aim: Loop ileostomy has high complication rates and causes much patient inconvenience. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a proximal catheter ileostomy in place of loop ileostomy in patients treated by intestinal repair and/or resection-anastomosis. Design: Prospective study. Setting: J. N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Patients and Methods: From November 2006 to November 2009, in all patients treated surgically by primary repair and/or resection-anastomosis of small and/or large bowel, we constructed a catheter ileostomy when a defunctioning proximal protective loop ileostomy was considered advisable. Catheter ileostomy was constructed in the fashion of catheter jejunostomy, with postoperative saline irrigation. Results: Catheter ileostomy was performed in 20 patients in the 3-year period. The mean age of the subjects was 28.6 years and the male: female ratio was 1.86:1. Four patients died of septicemia and multiple organ failure unrelated to catheter ileostomy in the immediate postoperative period. Catheter ileostomy started functioning within 48 hours of the operation, and twice-daily irrigation was found sufficient in 81.25% of the surviving patients. Only one patient developed peritubal leak with mild skin excoriation that cleared within 5 days. Another patient with Koch's abdomen underwent conversion to loop colostomy on re-exploration for postoperative adhesive obstruction. There was no instance of intestinal leak. Ileostomy wounds closed spontaneously within 7-14 days of catheter removal, and none required formal closure. Hospital stay ranged from 12-35 days (mean: 23 days). Conclusions: Catheter ileostomy is effective in protecting intestinal anastomosis/repair; there is minimal morbidity and no catheter-related leak/mortality, and we recommend the procedure.
  - 2,501 302
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