Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   2014| May-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 22, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Expression of hippo pathway in colorectal cancer
Kun Liang, Guangxi Zhou, Qi Zhang, Jing Li, Cuiping Zhang
May-June 2014, 20(3):188-194
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133025  PMID:24976283
Background/Aims: Hippo pathway plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the expression of Hippo pathway components in the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the mRNA expression levels of MST1, LATS2, YAP, TAZ, TEAD1, CDX2, and OCT4, and western blot (WB) was used to examine the protein expression levels of MST1, YAP, TEAD1, and CDX2 in 30 specimens of human colorectal adenomas, 50 pairs of human CRC tissues, and adjacent nontumorous tissues from CRC patients. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as the housekeeping gene in qRT-PCR. Results: The mRNA expression levels of MST1 and LATS2 showed an increasing tendency from CRC to adjacent nontumorous tissues (P < 0.001). Conversely, the mRNA expression levels of YAP, TAZ, TEAD, and OCT4 showed a decreasing tendency from CRC to adjacent nontumorous tissues (P < 0.001). MST1 protein was downregulated and YAP and TEAD1 proteins were upregulated in CRC (all P < 0.001). The mRNA and protein expression levels of CDX2 in CRC were significantly lower than those in colorectal adenomas and adjacent nontumorous tissues (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the latter two groups (qRT-PCR, P = 0.113; WB, P = 0.151). Furthermore, statistical analysis showed that the expression levels of Hippo signal pathway components were associated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. Conclusion: Hippo pathway is suppressed in the progression from colorectal adenomas to CRC and is associated with CRC progression and metastasis. This study suggests the components of Hippo pathway might be prognostic indicators for CRC patients.
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Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia
Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen, Othman R. Alharbi, Nahla A. Azzam, Ahmed S. Almalki, Khalid A. Alswat, Majid A. Almadi
May-June 2014, 20(3):162-169
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.132993  PMID:24976279
Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn's disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS), was used to register Crohn's disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients' characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn's disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn's disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.
  2,546 444 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS
Does vitamin E improve the outcomes of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ahmed A. Sarkhy, Abdulrahman A. Al-Hussaini, Valerio Nobili
May-June 2014, 20(3):143-153
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.132983  PMID:24976277
Background and Aims: To systemically evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant vitamin E on the outcomes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews over the period between January 1980 and September 2012 for the studies that examined the role of adjuvant vitamin E given at any dose or duration, alone or in combination with other interventions, on the outcome of pediatric NAFLD. The outcomes are alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and histological improvement. Results: Five randomized trials were eligible to be included in our analysis, with a total of 270 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in the effect of adjuvant vitamin E on normalizing serum ALT [risk ratio (RR) =1.18, confidence interval (CI) =0.92-1.53, P = 0.77 for heterogeneity, I2 = 0%]. Sensitivity analysis showed that using higher doses of vitamin E, a longer duration of therapy or adding vitamin C did not change the effect on the measured outcome. Only two studies looked at histological changes as an outcome. We observed substantial heterogeneity between the two studies. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis did not find a significant effect of adjuvant vitamin E over placebo in normalizing serum ALT. Data on the long-term effect of adjuvant vitamin E on histological improvements in NAFLD patients are still lacking. Larger, well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in children with histological endpoints are still needed to answer this question.
  2,339 643 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence and characteristics of colonic polyps and adenomas in 2654 colonoscopies in Saudi Arabia
Majid A. Almadi, Othman Alharbi, Nahla Azzam, Junaid Wadera, Nazia Sadaf, Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen
May-June 2014, 20(3):154-161
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.132986  PMID:24976278
Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the Saudi population, with an increasing incidence over the past 20 years. We aim to determine the baseline polyp as well as adenoma prevalence in a large cohort of patients and to find the possible age in which, if deemed appropriate, a CRC screening program should be initiated. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an endoscopic reporting database of individuals seen at a major tertiary care university hospital (King Khalid University Hospital) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Consecutive Saudi patients who underwent a colonoscopy between August 2007 and April 2012 were included. Patients were excluded if the indication for the colonoscopy was colon cancer, colonic resection, active colitis, active diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or if the patient was referred for polypectomy. Results: 2654 colonoscopies were included in the study. The mean age of the study population was 50.5 years [standard deviation (SD) 15.9] and females represented 57.7%. The polyp detection rate in completed colonoscopies was 20.8% (95% CI: 19.2-22.5). Adenomas were found in 8.1% (95% CI: 7.1-9.1), while advanced adenomas were found in only 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7). Adenomas were found in the left side of the colon in 33.9%, followed by the rectum in 14.6%, ascending colon and cecum in 14.2%, transverse colon in 8.7%, and in multiple locations in 28.7%. Those with a prior history of polyps or CRC were more likely to have an adenoma at colonoscopy than those who did not (14.3% vs. 6.6%; P < 0.01). The adenoma prevalence varied between age groups and ranged from 6.2% to 13.6% with a higher proportion in older individuals; this trend was seen both in males (6.0-14.5%) and females (6.4-14.6%) as well as in those who had screening colonoscopies (6.3-18.4%). No age could be found at which a CRC screening program would be appropriate to initiate. Conclusion: The prevalence of polyps and adenomas in this cohort is less than that reported in the Western populations. But as this cohort included younger and symptomatic patients with only a small proportion undergoing screening, further studies in an asymptomatic population are needed.
  2,435 534 -
Opioid use is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with Crohn's disease
David Sanford, Patrick Thornley, Anouar Teriaky, Nilesh Chande, James Gregor
May-June 2014, 20(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133020  PMID:24976282
Background/Aims: Quality of life is an important consideration in the management of patients with Crohn's disease. Previous studies suggest that Crohn's disease patients using opioids may have decreased quality of life and increased risk of mortality. Our aim was to determine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and opioid use in patients with Crohn's disease while controlling for disease severity. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study recruiting Crohn's disease patients at our center. Disease activity was measured using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI), and HRQoL was measured using the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). Results: We enrolled 38 Crohn's disease patients using opioids and 62 patients not using opioids. Patients using opioids had an increased duration of disease (median 18.5 vs. 9 years, P = 0.005), increased surgeries related to Crohn's disease (median 3 vs. 0, P < 0.001), and increased prednisone use (29% vs. 11.3%, P = 0.03). Patients using opioids had increased disease activity (median HBI score 9.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.001). Quality of life was lower in patients using opioids (mean IBDQ score 109.3 vs. 162.9, P < 0.001). This finding was significant when controlling for HBI scores, number of previous surgeries, and prednisone use (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Opioid use in Crohn's disease patients appears to be associated with disease activity and severity. HRQoL is markedly decreased in patients using opioids and this association is significant even when controlling for variables reflecting disease severity. Our findings suggest that Crohn's disease patients using opioids are likely to be significantly impacted by their disease.
  2,345 340 -
CASE REPORTS
Pancreatic volvulus with wandering spleen and gastric volvulus: An unusual triad for acute abdomen in a surgical emergency
Ujjwal Gorsi, Anmol Bhatia, Rajesh Gupta, Saranga Bharathi, Niranjan Khandelwal
May-June 2014, 20(3):195-198
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133026  PMID:24976284
Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge.
  2,153 262 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Egy-score as a noninvasive score for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: A preliminary approach
Mohamed Alboraie, Marwa Khairy, Aisha Elsharkawy, Marwa Elsharkawy, Noha Asem, Amany R. Abo El-Seoud, Fathy G. Elghamry, Gamal Esmat
May-June 2014, 20(3):170-174
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133003  PMID:24976280
Background and Aims: Egy-Score is a new noninvasive score for prediction of severe hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to validate Egy-Score as a noninvasive score for predicting stage of hepatic fibrosis in a group of Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled. Mean age was 40.25 ± 9.39 years. They were subjected to CA19-9, alpha-2-macroglobulin, total bilirubin, platelet count and albumin, liver biopsy, and histopathological staging of hepatic fibrosis according to METAVIR scoring system as part of their assessment for treatment. Egy-Score was calculated according to the following formula: Egy-Score = 3.52 + 0.0063 × CA19-9 + 0.0203 × age + 0.4485 × alpha-2-macroglobulin + 0.0303 × bilirubin - 0.0048 × platelet - 0.0462 × albumin. Egy-Score results were correlated to the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Results: Egy-Score correlates positively with the stage of hepatic fibrosis (F0-F4). Egy-Score was able to differentiate significant hepatic fibrosis, severe hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis accurately. Cutoff values of Egy-Score were 2.91850 (for significant fibrosis), 3.28624 (for severe fibrosis), and 3.67570 (for cirrhosis). Sensitivity, specificity, and areas-under-ROC curve (AUROCs) were 75.8%, 68.42%, and 0.776 (for significant fibrosis "≥F2"), 91.67%, 77.63%, and 0.875 (for severe fibrosis "≥F3"), and 81.82%, 86.52%, and 0.874 (for cirrhosis "F4"), respectively. Conclusion: Egy-Score is a useful noninvasive panel of surrogate biomarkers that could accurately predict different stages of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  1,872 323 -
EDITORIAL
The dilemma of the threshold age to start screening for colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia
Nasser Alsanea
May-June 2014, 20(3):141-142
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.132976  PMID:24976276
  1,809 287 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of HLA on hepatitis C virus clearance and persistence in anti-HCV-positive end-stage renal disease patients
Serkan Ocal, Haldun Selcuk, Murat Korkmaz, Reskan Altun, Abdullah E. Yildirim, Enver Akbas
May-June 2014, 20(3):175-181
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133007  PMID:24976281
Background/Aims: The efficacy of immune response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules of the host which present HCV antigens to CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the frequencies of certain HLA class I-II alleles and the natural history of HCV in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Settings and Design: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a university hospital. Patients and Methods: The present study comprised 189 ESRD patients (candidates for renal transplantation) who had positive anti-HCV antibody test. The results concerning HCV and HLA status were gathered from patients' files. The viral persistence was compared between the groups that were determined by HLA sub-typing. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Level of error was set at 0.05 for all statistical evaluations, and P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: We found possible association between the course of HCV infection and specific HLA alleles. HLA class I Cw*6 and HLA class II DRB*10 alleles were observed more frequently in the viral clearance group (P < 0.05). The HLA class I B*38 allele group was more prone to develop chronic hepatitis C (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These findings suggest that HLA class I Cw*6 and HLA class II DRB*10 alleles may be associated with immunological elimination of HCV in Turkish patients on hemodialysis. HLA sub-typing could help predict the prognosis of HCV infection.
  1,732 325 -
CASE REPORTS
Unilateral multiple metallic stent-in-stent for a case of hilar biliary cancer: An alternative stenting strategy
Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Yoshihiro Kishida, Kenichiro Imai, Kinichi Hotta, Naomi Kakushima, Masaki Tanaka, Kohei Takizawa, Hiroyuki Ono
May-June 2014, 20(3):199-201
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133035  PMID:24976285
The stenting strategy has been discussed in cases with unresectable hilar bile duct cancer (HBDC). We describe here a case of HBDC, 4 cm in size, invading the right portal vein and hepatic artery, which was only treated with repeated metallic stent placement, and the patient survived for a long period (51 months). Against Bismuth type-IV hilar biliary stricture, our strategy was to maintain the drainage of the largest, viable hepatic area (>50% of total liver) by unilateral multiple stent-in-stent.
  1,481 253 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Comment on "hepatic-associated immunoglobulin a nephropathy in a child with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension"
Hamid Nasri, Muhammed Mubarak
May-June 2014, 20(3):202-202
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133037  PMID:24976286
  1,301 206 -
Serum paraoxonase and malondialdehyde levels in asymptomatic cholelithiasis
Mehmet Agilli, Fevzi N. Aydin, Ibrahim Aydin
May-June 2014, 20(3):203-204
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.133039  PMID:24976287
  1,071 170 -
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