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SPECIAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 1995  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-11
Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals


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In the 12 years since they were first published "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (the Vancouver style) have proved popular with both authors and editors; over 400 journals have stated that they will consier manuscripts that confirm to the requirements and we know that many more do so. The fourth edition, published here, incorporation recent amendments made by the group.

How to cite this article:
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Saudi J Gastroenterol 1995;1:3-11

How to cite this URL:
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Saudi J Gastroenterol [serial online] 1995 [cited 2022 May 27];1:3-11. Available from:

In January 1978 a group of editors from some major biomedical journals published in English met in Vancouver, British Columbia, and decided on uniform technical requirements for manu­scripts to be submitted to their journals. These requirements, including formats for bibliographic references developed for the Vancouver group by the National Library of Medicine, were published in three of the journals early in 1979. The Van­couver group evolved into the International Com­mittee of Medical Journal Editors. Over the years, the group has revised the requirements slightly; this is the fourth edition.

Over 400 journals have agreed to receive manu­scripts prepared in accordance with the require­ments. It is important to emphasize what these requirements imply and what they do not.

First, the requirements are instructions to authors on how to prepare manuscripts, not to editors on publication style. (But many journals have drawn on these requirements for elements of their publication styles).

Second, if authors prepare their manuscripts in the style specified in these requirements, editors of the participating journals will not return manu­scripts for changes in these details of style. Even so, manuscripts may be altered by journals to con­form with details of their own publication styles.

Third, authors sending manuscripts to a par­ticipating journal should not try to prepare them in accordance with the publication style of that journal but should follow the "Uniform Require­ments for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals."

Nevertheless, authors must also follow the instructions to authors in the journal as to what topics are suitable for that journal and the types of papers that may be submitted - for example, original articles, reviews, or case reports. In addi­tion, the journal's instructions are likely to contain other requirements unique to that journal, such as number of copies of manuscripts, acceptable lan­guages, length of articles, and approved abbrevia­tions.

Participating journals are expected to state in their instructions to authors that their require­ments are in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" and to cite a published ver­sion.

This document will be revised at intervals. Inquiries and comments from Central and North America about these requirements should be sent to Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, 10 Shattuck St., Boston, MA 02115; those from other regions should be sent to the Editor, British Medical Journal, British Medical Association, Tavistock Sq., London WCIH9JR, United King­dom. Note that these two journals provide sec­retariat services for the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors; they do not handle manuscripts intended for other journals. Papers intended for other journals should be sent directly to the offices of those journals.

Summary of Requirements

Type the manuscript double-space, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, refer­ences, tables, and legends.

Each manuscript component should begin on a new page, in the following sequence: title page; abstract and key words; text; acknowledgments; references; tables (each table complete with title and footnotes on a separate page); and legends for illustrations.

Illustrations must be good-quality, unmounted glossy prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 in), but no larger than 203 x 254 mm (8 x 10 in).

Submit the required number of copies of manu­script and figures (see journal's instructions) in a heavy paper envelope. The submitted manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter, as described under Submission of Manuscripts, and permissions to reproduce previously published material or to use illustrations that may identify human subjects.

Follow the journal's instructions for transfer of copyright. Authors should keep copies of every­thing submitted.

Prior and Duplicate Publication

Most journals do not wish to consider for publi­cation a paper on work that has already been reported in a published paper or is described in a paper submitted or accepted for publication else­where. This policy does not usually preclude con­sideration of a paper that has been rejected by another journal or of a complete report that fol­lows publication of a premilinary report, usually in the form of an abstract. Nor does it prevent con­sideration of a paper that has been presented at a scientific meeting if not published in full in a pro­ceedings or similar publication. Press reports of the meeting will not usually be considered as breaches of this rule, but such reports should not be amplified by additional data or copies of tables and illustrations. When submitting a paper an author should always make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publi­cation of the same or very similar work. Copies of such materials should be included with the submit­ted paper to help the editor decide how to deal with the matter.

Multiple publication - that is, the publication more than once of the same study, irrespective of whether the wording is the same - is rarely jus­tified. Secondary publication in another language is one possible justification, provided the follow­ing conditions are met.

(1) The editors of both journals concerned are fully informed; the editor concerned with secon­dary publication should have a photocopy, reprint, or manuscript of the primary version.

(2) The priority of the primary publication is respected by a publication interval of at least two weeks.

(3) The paper for secondary publication is written for a different group of readers and is not simply a translated version of the primary paper; an abbreviated version will often be sufficient.

(4) The secondary version reflects faithfully the data and interpretations of the primary ver­sion.

(5) A footnote on the title page of the secon­dary version informs readers, peers, and docu­menting agencies that the paper was edited, and is being published, for a national audience in paral­lel with a primary version based on the same data and interpretations. A suitable footnote might read as follows: "This article is based on a study first reported in the [title of journal, with full reference]."

Multiple publication other than as defined above is not acceptable to editors. If authors vio­late this rule they may expect appropriate edito­rial action to be taken.

Preliminary release, usually to public media, of scientific information described in a paper that has been accepted but not yet published is a violation of the policies of many journals. In a few cases, and only by arrangement with the editor, preliminary release of data may be acceptable - for example, to warn the public of health hazards.

   Preparation of Manuscript Top

Type the manuscript on white bond paper, 216 x 279 mm (8 1 /2 x 11 in) or ISO A4 (212 x 279 mm), with margins of at least 25 mm (1 in). Type only on one side of the paper. Use double-spacing throughout, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends for illustrations. Begin each of the follow­ing sections on separate pages: title page, abstract and key words, text, acknowledgement, refer­ences, individual tables, and legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Type the page number in the upper or lower right­hand corner of each page.

Title page

The title page should carry a) the title of the article, which should be concise but informative; b) first name, middle initial, and last name of each author, with highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation; c) name of department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; d) disclaimers, if any; e) name and address of authors responsible for correspon­dence about the manuscript; f) name and address of author to whom requests for reprints should be addressed or statement that reprints will not be available from the author; g) source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these; and h) a short running head or foot line of no more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces) placed at the foot of the title page and identified.


All persons designated as authors should qual­ify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the authors. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content.

Authorship credit should be based only on sub­stantial contributions to a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; and to b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on c) final approval of the version to be published. Condi­tions a), b), and c) must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collec­tion of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is also not suffi­cient for authorship. Any part of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the responsibility of at least one author.

A paper with corporate (collective) authorship must specify the key persons responsible for the article; others contributing to the work should be recognized separately (see Acknowledgements).

Editors may require authors to justify the assignment of authorship.

Abstract and key words

The second page should carry an abstract (of no more than 150 words for unstructured abstracts or 250 words for structured abstracts). The abstract should state the purposes of the study of investiga­tion, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals; observational and analyti­cal methods), main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance, if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and impor­tant aspects of the study or observations.

Below the abstract provide, and identify as such, 3 to 10 key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-indexing the article and may be published with the abstract. Use terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus; if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used.


The text of observational and experimental arti­cles is usually - but not necessarily - divided into sections with the heading Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Long articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content, especially the Results and Discussion sections. Other types of articles such as case reports, review articles, and editorials are likely to need other formats. Authors should con­sult individual journals for further guidance.


State the purpose of the article. Summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references, and do not review the subject extensively. Do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.


Describe your selection of the observational or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory ani­mals, including controls) clearly. Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in suffi­cient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially mod­ified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.


When reporting experiments on human sub­jects indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimen­tation (institutional or regional) or with the Hel­sinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital num­bers, especially in any illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals indicate whether the institution's or the National Research Council's guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.


Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence inter­vals). Avoid sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information. Dis­cuss eligibility of experimental subjects. Give details about randomization. Describe the methods for and success of any blinding of obser­vations. Report treatment complications. Give numbers of observations. Report losses to obser­vation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). References for study design and statistical methods should be to standard works (with pages stated) when possible rather than to papers in which the designs or methods were originally reported. Specify any general-use computer prog­rams used.

Put general descriptions of methods in the Methods section. When data are summarized in the Results section specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid non­technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as `random' (which implies a randomizing device), `normal,' `significant,' 'correlations,' and 'sam­ple.' Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols.


Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observa­tions.


Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other mate­rial given in the Introduction or the Results sec­tion. Include in the Discussion section the implica­tions of the findings and their limitations, includ­ing implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not com­pletely supported by your data. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when war­ranted, but clearly label them as such. Recom­mendations, when appropriate, may be included.


At an appropriate place in the article (title-page footnote or appendix to the text; see the journal's requirement) one or more statements should specify a) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general sup­port by a departmental chairman; b) acknowledg­ments of technical help; c) acknowledgments of financial and material support, specifying the nature of the support; d) financial relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.

Persons who have contributed intellectually to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named and their function or contribution described - for example, `scientific advice,' `critical review of study proposal,' `data collection,' or `participation in clinical trial.' Such persons must have given their permission to be named. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from persons acknowledged by name, because readers may infer their endorse­ment of the data and conclusions.

Technical help should be acknowledged in a paragraph separate from those acknowledging other contributions.


Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Iden­tify references in text. tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with a sequence estab­lished by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration.

Use the style of the examples below, which are based with slight modifications on the formats used by the U.S. National Library of Medicine in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Consult List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the library and as a list in the Janu­ary issue of Index Medicus.

Try to avoid using abstracts as references; 'un­published observations' and `personal communi­cations' may not be used as references, although references to written. not oral, communications may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Include among the references papers accepted but not yet published; designate the journal and add 'In press.' Information from manuscripts submit­ted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" (in parentheses).

The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. Exam­ples of correct forms of references are given below.

Articles in journals

(1) Standard journal article

List all authors, but if the number exceeds seven, give three followed by et al. You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Elec­trogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gas­troenterology 1980 Aug;79(2):311-4.

As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume, the month and issue number may be omitted.

You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Elec­trogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gas­troenterology 1980;79:311-4. Goate AM, Haynes AR, Owen MJ, Farrall M, James LA, Lai LY, et al. Predisposing locus for Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 21. Lancet 1989;1:352-5.

2. Organization as author

The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-Marrow Transplantation Team. Failure of syngeneic bone­marrow graft without preconditioning in post­hepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet 1977;2:742-4.

3. No author given

Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [edito­rial]. BMJ 1981;283:628.

4. Article in a foreign language

Massone L, Borghi S, Pestarino A, Piccini R, Gambini C. Localisations palmaires purpuriques de la dermatite herpetiforme. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1987;114:1545-7.

5. Volume with supplement

Magni F, Rossoni G, Berti F. BN-52021 protects guinea-pig from heart anaphylaxis. Pharmacol Res Commun 1988;20 Suppl 5:75-8.

6. Issue with supplement

Gardos G. Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. The natural history of tardive dys­kinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;8(Suppl 4):31S-37S.

7. Volume with part

Hanly C. Metaphysics and innateness: a psychoanalytic perspective. Int J Psychoanal 1988;69(Pt 3):389-99.

8. Issue with part

Edwards L, Meyskens F, Levine N. Effect of oral isotretinoin on dysplastic nevi. J Am Acad Der­matol 1989;20(2 Pt 1):257-60.

9. Issue with no volume

Baumeister AA. Origins and control of stereotyped movements. Monogr Am Assoc Ment Defic 1978;(3):353-84.

10. No issue or volume

Danoek K. Skiing in and through the history of medicine. Nord Medicinhist Arsb 1982:86-100.

11. Pagination in roman numerals

Ronne Y. Ansvarsfall. Blodtransfusion till fel patient. Vardfacket 1989;13:XVI-XXVII.

12. Type of article indicated as needed

Spargo PM, Manners JM. DDAVP and open heart surgery [letter]. Anaesthesia 1989;44:363-4. Fuhrman SA, Joiner KA. Binding of the third component of complement C3 by Toxoplasma gondii [abstract]. Clin Res 1987;35:475A.

13. Article containing retraction

Shishido A. Retraction notice: Effect of platinum compounds on murine lymphocyte mitogenesis [Retraction of Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Salem MH. In: Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1979;32:53-65]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1980;33:235-7.

14. Article retracted

Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Salem MH. Effect of platinum compounds on murine lymphocyte mitogenesis [Retracted by Shishido A. In: Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1980;33:235-7]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1979;32:53-65.

15. Article containing comment

Piccoli A, Bossatti A. Early steroid therapy in IgA nephropathy: still an open question (comment). Nephron 1989;51:289-91. Comment on Nephron 1988;48:12-7.

16. Article commented on

Kobayashi Y, Fujii K, Hiki Y, Tateno S,

Kurokawa A, Kamiyama M. Steroid therapy in IgA nephropathy: a retrospective study in heavy proteinuric cases [see comments]. Nephron 1988;48:12-7. Comment in Nephron 1989;51:289-91.

17. Article with published erratum

Schofield A. The CAGE questionnaire and psychological health [published erratum appears in Br J Addict 1989;84:701]. Br J Addict 1988;83:761-4.

Books and other monographs

18. Personal author

Colson JH, Armour WJ. Sports injuries and their treatment. 2nd rev. ed. London: S. Paul, 1986.

19. Editor(s) or compiler as author

Diener HC, Wilkinson M, editors. Drug-induced headache. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

20. Organization as author and publisher

Virginia Law Foundation. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville: The Foun­dation, 1987.

21. Chapter in a book

Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, editors. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974:457-72.

22. Conference proceedings

Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community response. Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Mar 30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985.

23. Conference paper

Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimet­ric and risk models. In: Gammage RB. Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceed­ings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea (MI): Lewis, 1985: 69- 78.

24. Scientific or technical report

Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device.

Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No.:NIH-NHLI-69-2185-4.

25. Dissertation

Youssef NM. School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease [dissertation]. Pittsburgh (PA): Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1988.

26. Patent

Harred JF, Knight AR, McIntyre JS, inventors. Dow Chemical Company, assignee. Epoxidation process. US patent 3,654,317. 1972 Apr 4.

Other published material

27. Newspaper article

Rensberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington Post 1989 Aug 7;Sect A:2(col 5).

28. Audiovisual

AIDS epidemic: the physician's role [vid­eorecording]. Cleveland (OH): Academy of Medicine of Cleveland, 1987.

29. Computer file

Renal system [computer program]. MS-DOS ver­son. Edwardsville (KS): MediSim, 1988.

30. Legal material

Toxic Substances Control Act: Hearing on S. 776 Before the Subcomm. on the Enviroment of the Senate Comm. on Commerce, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. 343 (1975).

31. Map

Scotland [topographic map]. Washington: National Geographic Society (US), 1981.

32. Dictionary and similar references

Ecstasia. Dorland's illustrated medical dictio­nary. 27th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1988:527.

33. Classical material

The Winter's Tale: act 5, scene 1, lines 13-16. The complete works of William Shakespeare. Lon­don: Rex, 1973.

Unpublished material

34. In press

Lillywhite HB, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in an aquatic snake. Science. In press.


Type each table double-spaced on a separate sheet. Do not submit tables as photographs. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations that are used in each table. For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence:

Identify statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules.

Be sure that each table is cited in the text.

If you use data from another published or unpublished source obtain permission and acknowledge fully.

The use of too many tables in relation to the length of the text may produce difficulties in the layout of pages.

Examine issues of the journal to which you plan to submit your paper to estimate how many tables can be used per 1000 words of text.

The editor, on accepting a paper, may recom­mend that additional tables containing important backup data too extensive to publish be deposited with an archival service such as the National Auxilliary Publication Service in the United States, or be made available by the authors. In that event an appropriate statement will be added to the text. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper.


Submit the required number of complete sets of figures. Figures should be professionally drawn and photographed; freehand or typewritten let­tering is unacceptable. Instead of original draw­ing, roentgenograms, and other material send sharp, glossy black-and-white photographic prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 X 7 in), but no larger than 203 X 254 mm (8 X 10 in). Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication each item will still be legi­ble. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations, not on the illustrations themselves.

Each figure should have a label pasted on its back indicating the number of the figure, author's name, and top of the figure. Do not write on the back of figures or scratch or mar them by using paper clips. Do not bend figures or mount them on cardboard.

Photomicrographs must have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in the photomicrographs should contrast with the back­ground.

If photographs of persons are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. If a figure has been published acknowledge the original source and submit writ­ten permission from the copyright holder to repro­duce the material. Permission is required irrespec­tive of authorship or publisher, except for docu­ments in the public domain.

For illustrations in color, ascertain whether the journal requires color negatives, positive trans­parencies, or color prints. Accompanying draw­ings marked to indicate the region to be repro­duced may be useful to the editor. Some journals publish illustrations in color only if the author pays for the extra cost.

Legends for illustrations

Type legends for illustrations double-spaced, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify method of staining in photomicrographs.

Units of Measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.

Temperatures should be given in degrees Cel­sius. Blood pressures should be given in millimet­ers of mercury.

All hematologic and clinical-chemistry mea­surements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). Editors may request that alternative or non-SI units be added by the authors before publication.

Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should pre­cede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.

Submission of Manuscripts

Mail the required number of manuscript copies in a heavy paper envelope, enclosing manuscript copies and figures in cardboard, if necessary, to prevent bending of photographs during mail handling. Place photographs and transparencies in a separate heavy paper envelope.

Manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover­ing letter signed by all coauthors. This must include a) information on prior or duplicate publi­cation or submission elsewhere of any part of the work as defined earlier in this document; b) a statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to conflict of interest; c) a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors, that the requirements for author­ship as previously stated in this document have been met, and furthermore, that each coauthor believes that the manuscript represents honest work; and d) the name, address, and correspond­ing author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs. The letter should give any additional information that may be helpful to the editor, such as the type of article in the particular journal the manuscript represents and whether the author(s) will be willing to meet the cost of reproducing the color illustrations.

The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permissions to reproduce published mate­rial, to use illustrations or report sensitive per­sonal information of identifiable persons, or to name persons for their contributions.

Participating Journals

Journals that have notified the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors of their willingness to consider for publication manu­scripts prepared in accordance with earlier ver­sions of the committee's uniform requirements identify themselves as such in their information for authors. A full list is available on request from the New England Journal of Medicine or the British Medical Journal, Citations of this docu­ment should be to one of the sources listed below.

International committee of Medical Journal

Editors Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. N Eng J Med 1991; 324: 424-428. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. BMJ 1991; 302: 338-341.

This document is not covered by copyright: it may be copied or reprinted without permission.

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