Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 337-343

Post pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage: A retrospective analysis of incidence, risk factors and outcome


Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Subhashish Das
Room No 29/13, Upper Ground Floor, East Patel Nagar, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sjg.SJG_145_20

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Background: The operative mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has declined but morbidity still remains considerable. Post pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage (PPH) occurs in 3-13% of patients following PD. We studied the incidence and outcomes of patients with PPH after PD to determine the associated risk factors and effect on hospital stay. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively collected data of patients developing PPH following PD between January 2007 and May 2018. ISGPS definition and grading system were used. By using univariate and multivariate analyses, independent predictors of PPH were identified. Results: Of the 340 patients undergoing PD, PPH occurred in 39 patients (11.5%), of whom 5 (12.8%) had Grade A, 22 (56.4%) had Grade B and 12 (30.8%) had Grade C PPH. Six (15.4%) of the 39 patients with PPH died against an overall mortality in the study population of 16 out of 340 patients (4.7%), reflecting higher mortality (P = 0.019) in patients with PPH . The independent risk factors for PPH were a high pre-operative bilirubin (mean 4.7 vs. 7.4 mg/dl, P = 0.01) and INR (mean 1.2 vs. 1.72, P = 0.024), whereas it was closely followed by but, but not significantly associated with pre-operative biliary stent placement (P = 0.09). Pancreatico-jejunostomy (PJ) leak was seen in 20.7% in non-hemorrhage group vs. 41% in hemorrhage group (P = 0.008) and was an independent risk factor for PPH. Conclusion: PPH occurred in 11.5% of patients and resulted in a mortality four times greater than those without a PPH. It occurred more frequently in patents with a high pre-operative serum bilirubin, INR, biliary stenting or those with a PJ leak.


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