Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-12

New insights into intestinal failure–associated liver disease in adults: A comprehensive review of the literature


Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Health Sciences, University Hospital of Ioannina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Dimitrios K Christodoulou
Professor of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Health Sciences, University Hospital of Ioannina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, POBox 1186, Ioannina 45110
Greece
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sjg.sjg_551_20

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Intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD) remains one of the most common and serious complications of parenteral nutrition (PN), causing a wide spectrum of hepatic manifestations from steatosis and mild cholestasis to portal hypertension and end-stage liver failure. The prevalence of IFALD depends on the diagnostic criteria and ranges from 4.3% to 65%. Moreover, many factors are shown to contribute to its development, including nutrient deficiencies, toxicity of PN, infections, and alterations of bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota. Prevention and management of IFALD aim at ameliorating or eliminating the risk factors associated with IFALD. The use of PN formulations with a lower ratio omega-6-to-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, cycle PN, optimization of enteral stimulation and prevention and early treatment of infections constitute the main therapeutic targets. However, failure of improvement and severe IFALD with end-stage liver failure should be considered as the indications of intestinal transplantation. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of IFALD in the adult population as well as to present a clinical approach of the therapeutic strategies of IFALD and present novel therapeutic targets.


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