Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-February 2021
Volume 27 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-59

Online since Wednesday, February 24, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Improving outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding p. 1
James Y. W. Lau
DOI:10.4103/sjg.sjg_552_20  PMID:33642349
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

New insights into intestinal failure–associated liver disease in adults: A comprehensive review of the literature p. 3
Fotios S Fousekis, Ioannis V Mitselos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou
DOI:10.4103/sjg.sjg_551_20  PMID:33642350
Intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD) remains one of the most common and serious complications of parenteral nutrition (PN), causing a wide spectrum of hepatic manifestations from steatosis and mild cholestasis to portal hypertension and end-stage liver failure. The prevalence of IFALD depends on the diagnostic criteria and ranges from 4.3% to 65%. Moreover, many factors are shown to contribute to its development, including nutrient deficiencies, toxicity of PN, infections, and alterations of bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota. Prevention and management of IFALD aim at ameliorating or eliminating the risk factors associated with IFALD. The use of PN formulations with a lower ratio omega-6-to-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, cycle PN, optimization of enteral stimulation and prevention and early treatment of infections constitute the main therapeutic targets. However, failure of improvement and severe IFALD with end-stage liver failure should be considered as the indications of intestinal transplantation. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of IFALD in the adult population as well as to present a clinical approach of the therapeutic strategies of IFALD and present novel therapeutic targets.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A randomized controlled trial p. 13
Gautham Kola, Sathasivam Sureshkumar, Subair Mohsina, GS Sreenath, Vikram Kate
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_152_20  PMID:32801255
Background: The study aimed at comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion strategy in reducing mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial conducted over two years. Patients presenting with UGIB were randomized into restrictive (hemoglobin (Hb) <7 g/dl) or liberal (Hb <8 g/dl) transfusion strategy groups. Transfusion was given till patients achieved target Hb of 9 g/dl in restrictive and 10 g/dl in the liberal arms. Patients with exsanguinating bleeding, transfusion within 90 days, recent history of trauma or surgery were excluded. Primary outcome was mortality rate and the secondary outcomes were morbidity, re-bleeding episodes and the need for intervention. Results: A total of 224 patients were randomized to 112 patients in each group. Demographic characteristics were comparable. 45-day mortality was similar between the two groups (restrictive vs. liberal; 10/112 vs. 12/112; P = 0.65). The number of in-hospital bleeding episodes (12 vs. 9; P = 0.25), incidence of re-bleeding during the 45-day follow-up (13 vs. 14; P = 0.84), need for endoscopic banding for varices (37/112 vs. 39/112, P = 0.99), mean hospital stay (days) (3.21 ± 2.78 vs. 2.73 ± 1.29; P = 0.10) were similar between the two groups. Conclusion: Restrictive transfusion strategy is non-inferior to liberal transfusion strategy in patients with UGIB.
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Causes and patient outcomes p. 20
Majid A Almadi, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Ibrahim M Alruzug, Thamer A Aldarsouny, Toufic Semaan, Manhal K Aldaher, Adnan AlMustafa, Nahla Azzam, Faisal Batwa, Badr Albawardy, Abdulrahman Aljebreen
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_297_20  PMID:33047678
Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a healthcare burden and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We aim to describe the presentation, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients presenting with UGIB as well as important patient outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed at a tertiary care university hospital in Riyadh. Electronic endoscopic reports of patients undergoing gastroscopies for the indication of UGIB from January 2006 to January 2015 were included. Demographic data, past medical conditions, medications used, symptoms on presentation, as well as the patients' hemodynamic status, laboratory investigations on presentations, the need for blood products, the need for admission to an intensive care unit, rebleeding, and in-hospital mortality rates were retrieved from medical records. Results: Two hundred fifty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 57.1 years and males constituted 66.8% of the study cohort. At least one comorbidity was present in 88.2%, while 20.7% had a history of prior UGIB, 12.6% had a history of peptic ulcer disease, and 9.2% had known esophageal varices. A nonvariceal source represented 80.1% of the causes (95% CI: 75.4 to 85.3%), 15.5% required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), the rebleeding rate was 8.9% (95% CI; 5.7% to 12.2%) while the in-hospital mortality was 4.4% (95% CI; 2.4% to 6.9%). The mean pre-endoscopic Rockall score was 2.6 (range: 0 to 5), while the total Rockall score was 4.4 (range: 1 to 9). There was no association between the pre-endoscopic Rockall score and rebleeding (3.0 vs. 2.5, P = 0.27) or need for ICU admission (3.2 vs. 2.4, P = 0.08), the total Rockall score and rebleeding (5.0 vs. 4.4, P = 0.58) or need for ICU admission (5.0 vs. 4.3, P = 0.36). Conclusion: Causes of UGIB in this patient population were predominantly nonvariceal and the rebleeding and mortality rates resembled those of other studies.
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Time trends of causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and endoscopic findings p. 28
Ibrahim M Alruzug, Thamer A Aldarsouny, Toufic Semaan, Manhal K Aldaher, Adnan AlMustafa, Nahla Azzam, Abdulrahman Aljebreen, Majid A Almadi
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_378_20  PMID:33078720
Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a frequent cause for emergency endoscopy and, in a proportion, requires the application of endotherapy. We aim to evaluate the proportion of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB), the endoscopic findings that were detected, as well as the temporal trends of endoscopic findings over a period of 13 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy with an indication of UGIB or presented with hematemesis, melena, or both, as well as those who had hematochezia, from January 2004 to December 2016 (13 years). Results: A total of 2075 patients were included with a mean age of 56.8 years (range 18–113) and males constituted 67.9%, while 65.9% had at least one comorbidity. Symptoms on presentation included hematemesis (52.5%), melena (31.2%), both hematemesis & melena (15.1%), and hematochezia (1.2%). The majority of UGIB were from a NVUGIB source (80.5%) and a variceal source was found in 13.1%, while no endoscopic findings were found in 6.4% of cases. The most common endoscopic diagnosis was gastroduodenal erosions (23.8%), duodenal ulcers (23.5%), reflux esophagitis (16.0%), esophageal varices (12.1%), and gastric ulcers (10.8%). There was no change in the endoscopic findings over the time period of the study. A third of duodenal ulcers (33.3%) as well as 21.9% of gastric ulcers were actively bleeding at the time of endoscopy, while 3.3% of duodenal ulcers had an adherent clot. Conclusions: NVUGIB composed the majority of cases presenting with UGIB and variceal bleeding was lower than that described in prior studies, but there were no clear trends in the proportion of causes of UGIB during the study duration.
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Clinical characteristics and efficacy of endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal ectopic varices: A single-center study p. 35
Wan Yipeng, Wang Anjiang, Li Bimin, Huang Chenkai, Wan Size, Zhu Xuan
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_50_20  PMID:33208560
Background: Ectopic varices (EcVs) may cause massive bleeding, which can be difficult to control, with a high rate of mortality. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of EcVs and the efficacy of endoscopic treatment. Methods: From January 2008 to July 2017, the clinical data of 150 patients with EcVs in our center were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and fifty patients with EcVs (male 74.7%), with a mean age of: 54.1 ± 14.6 years were included. The prevalence of EcVs was 0.92% in gastrointestinal varices. Cirrhosis was the most common cause of EcVs (67.0%). The rates of bleeding were 57.14%, 4.34%, 30.0%, 33.3%, and 100% in the duodenal varices rectal varices, colonic varices, anastomotic varices, and small bowel varices, respectively. An age under 55 years, varices in the duodenum, and erythema were considered risk factors for EcV bleeding. Endoscopic treatments were performed in 15 patients with EcV bleeding. The follow-up period of the patients who underwent endoscopic treatment ranged from 0.5 to 24 months. The overall rate of treatment success was 73.33% for endoscopic treatment of EcV bleeding. The overall rates of rebleeding and mortality during 2 years were as high as 53.3% and 26.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Age, erythema, and the location of EcVs are considered risk factors for EcV bleeding, and the rate of bleeding is higher in patients with duodenal varices than in those with other EcVs. Endoscopic treatment is safe, effective, and feasible for controlling EcV bleeding.
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Proposal for a clinicopathological prognostic score for resected gastric cancer patients p. 44
Cristina Díaz del Arco, Lourdes Estrada Muñoz, Elena Molina Roldán, Luis Ortega Medina, Soledad García Gómez de las Heras, Ángela Chávez, Ma Jesús Fernández Aceñero
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_208_20  PMID:33047677
Background: Factors other than pTNM stage have been associated with gastric cancer (GC) prognosis, and several alternative prognostic scores have been constructed. Our aims are to identify prognostic factors in western GC patients and to build clinicopathological prognostic models for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Methods: A Retrospective study of 204 cases of GC resected during the years 2000 to 2014 was conducted in our hospital. Clinicopathological features were assessed, univariate and multivariate analysis were performed and prognostic scores were constructed. Results: Most patients were diagnosed at pTNM stages II and III (36.9% and 48.1%, respectively). According to Laurén classification, tumors were intestinal (55.8%), diffuse (35.2%) and mixed (9%). During follow-up, 43.5% of patients had tumor recurrence, and 28.6% died due to tumor. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, Laurén subtype, signet-ring cell morphology, pTNM stage, tumor grade, perineural invasion, growth pattern, intratumoral inflammation, adjuvant therapy, and desmoplasia were significantly related to tumor progression or death. Multivariate analysis showed that Laurén subtype, pT stage, and lymph node ratio (LNR) were significantly and independently associated with GC recurrence. Laurén subtype and LNR were significantly related to patient survival. Prognostic scores for tumor progression and death were developed and patients were classified into four prognostic groups which showed good prognostic performance. Conclusion: A prognostic model comprising histological features such as Laurén subtype can be easily applied in clinical practice, and provides more prognostic information than pTNM stage alone. These models can further stratify resected GC patients and have the potential to aid in the individualization of patient management.
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Expression analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene in gallbladder cancer p. 54
Puneet Kumar, Manoj Yadav, Khushi Verma, Ruhi Dixit, Juhi Singh, Satyendra K Tiwary, Gopeshwar Narayan, VK Dixit
DOI:10.4103/sjg.SJG_213_20  PMID:32801256
Background: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR), a member of the growing superfamily, is a basic helix-loop-helix/PerAHR nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) protein. AHRR has been proposed to function as a putative new tumor suppressor gene based on studies in multiple types of human cancers. This current study aims to investigate AHHR expression and its prognostic significance in gallbladder cancer. Methods: The study includes 48 gallbladder cancer and 34 chronic cholecystitis cases as controls. The expression level of AHRR was analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The results were correlated with different clinical parameters. Results: We demonstrate that the expression of AHRR is significantly down-regulated in gallbladder cancer tissue samples as compared to that in chronic cholecystitis tissue samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) (P = 0.017) and immunohistochemistry analysis (P = 0.002). Interestingly, our RT-PCR data revealed that AHRR mRNA expression is frequently down-regulated (45.8%; 22/48) in cases as compared to 14.7% (5/34) in controls. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis data show significant down-regulation of AHRR expression in 77.1% (37/48) of gallbladder cancer cases than 44.1% (15/34) in controls (P < 0.017). Reduced mRNA and protein expression is significantly associated with advanced T-stage (P = 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.001), and tumors with nodal metastasis (P = 0.001). Decreased expression of AHRR is significantly associated with poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study suggests that low AHRR expression may be critical in gallbladder cancer development. Our data suggests that AHRR may act as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression profile may be useful as a diagnostic marker in gallbladder cancer.
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